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Hee Kyung Park 2 Articles
Environmental Risk Factors for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Hee Kyung Park, Sindana D. Ilango, Irene Litvan
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(2):103-113.   Published online May 26, 2021
  • 11,013 View
  • 284 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Typically, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is clinically characterized by slow vertical saccades or supranuclear gaze palsy, levodopa-resistant parkinsonism with predominant axial symptoms, and cognitive executive impairment. Over the past decades, various PSP phenotypes, including PSP with predominant parkinsonism, PSP with corticobasal syndrome, PSP with progressive gait freezing, and PSP with predominant frontal dysfunction, have been identified from pathologically confirmed cases. Expanding knowledge led to new diagnostic criteria for PSP that with increased disease awareness led to increased PSP prevalence estimates. The identification of environmental and modifiable risk factors creates an opportunity to intervene and delay the onset of PSP or slow disease progression. To date, despite the increasing number of publications assessing risk factors for PSP, few articles have focused on environmental and lifestyle risk factors for this disorder. In this article, we reviewed the literature investigating the relationship between PSP and several environmental and other modifiable lifestyle risk factors. In our review, we found that exposures to toxins related to diet, metals, well water, and hypertension were associated with increased PSP risk. In contrast, higher education and statins may be protective. Further case-control studies are encouraged to determine the exact role of these factors in the etiopathogenesis of PSP, which in turn would inform strategies to prevent and reduce the burden of PSP.


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    Journal of Neurology.2023; 270(9): 4451.     CrossRef
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  • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy in 2022: recent developments and an eye to the future
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New Perspective on Parkinsonism in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration
Hee Kyung Park, Sun J. Chung
J Mov Disord. 2013;6(1):1-8.
  • 24,833 View
  • 241 Download
  • 27 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common type of presenile dementia. Three clinical prototypes have been defined; behavioral variant FTD, semantic dementia, and progressive nonfluent aphasia. Progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and motor neuron disease may possess clinical and pathological characteristics that overlap with FTD, and it is possible that they may all belong to the same clinicopathological spectrum. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a clinicopathological syndrome that encompasses a heterogenous group of neurodegenerative disorders. Owing to the advancement in the field of molecular genetics, diagnostic imaging, and pathology, FTLD has been the focus of great interest. Nevertheless, parkinsonism in FTLD has received relatively less attention. Parkinsonism is found in approximately 20–30% of patients in FTLD. Furthermore, parkinsonism can be seen in all FTLD subtypes, and some patients with familial and sporadic FTLD can present with prominent parkinsonism. Therefore, there is a need to understand parkinsonism in FTLD in order to obtain a better understanding of the disease. With regard to the clinical characteristics, the akinetic rigid type of parkinsonism has predominantly been described. Parkinsonism is frequently observed in familial FTD, more specifically, in FTD with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17q (FTDP-17). The genes associated with parkinsonism are microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT), progranulin (GRN or PGRN), and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) repeat expansion. The neural substrate of parkinsonism remains to be unveiled. Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging revealed decreased uptake of DAT, and imaging findings indicated atrophic changes of the basal ganglia. Parkinsonism can be an important feature in FTLD and, therefore, increased attention is needed on the subject.


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