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Tobias Mantel 1 Article
Reliability and Validity of the Embouchure Dystonia Severity Rating Scale
Tobias Mantel, André Lee, Shinichi Furuya, Masanori Morise, Eckart Altenmüller, Bernhard Haslinger
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(2):191-195.   Published online May 24, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Embouchure dystonia (ED) is a task-specific movement disorder that leads to loss of fine motor control of the embouchure and tongue muscles in wind musicians. In contrast to musicians’ hand dystonia, no validated severity rating for ED exists, posing a major obstacle for structured assessment in scientific and clinical settings. The aim of this study is to validate an ED severity rating scale (EDSRS) allowing for a standardized estimation of symptom severity in ED.
The EDSRS was set up as a composite score of six items evaluating audio-visual disease symptoms during the performance of three standardized musical tasks (sustained notes, scales, and fourths) separately for each body side. For validation, 17 musicians with ED underwent standardized audiovisual recordings during performance. Anonymized and randomized recordings were assessed by two experts in ED (raters). Statistical analysis included metrics of consistency, reliability, and construct validity with the fluctuation of the fundamental frequency of the acoustic signal (F0) (extracted in an audio analysis of the sustained notes).
The EDSRS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.975−0.983, corrected item-total correlations r = 0.90−0.96), interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] for agreement/consistency = 0.94/0.96), intrarater reliability over time (ICC per rater = 0.93/0.87) and good precision (standard error of measurement = 2.19/2.65), and correlated significantly with F0 variability (r = 0.55–0.60, p = 0.011–0.023).
The developed EDSRS is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of ED severity in the hands of trained expert raters. Its easy applicability makes it suitable not only for routine clinical practice but also for scientific studies.

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