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Volume 4(1); April 2011
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Review Articles
Rationale for Therapeutic Silencing of Alpha-Synuclein in Parkinson’s Disease
Demetrius M. Maraganore
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):1-7.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11001
  • 12,284 View
  • 67 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The purpose of this paper is to provide the rationale for therapeutic silencing of the alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The paper reviews the public health significance of PD; the causal links between rare SNCA variants and familial PD; the association of common SNCA variants and PD susceptibility; the association of SNCA variants also with age at onset and motor and cognitive outcomes in PD; therapeutic strategies targeting SNCA in PD; and preliminary findings and considerations on small interfering RNA-based therapies and PD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Antisense therapies in neurological diseases
    Jean-Baptiste Brunet de Courssou, Alexandra Durr, David Adams, Jean-Christophe Corvol, Louise-Laure Mariani
    Brain.2022; 145(3): 816.     CrossRef
  • Parkinson's disease: Alterations in iron and redox biology as a key to unlock therapeutic strategies
    L. Ma, M. Gholam Azad, M. Dharmasivam, V. Richardson, R.J. Quinn, Y. Feng, D.L. Pountney, K.F. Tonissen, G.D. Mellick, I. Yanatori, D.R. Richardson
    Redox Biology.2021; 41: 101896.     CrossRef
  • Translation of the intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein is inhibited by a small molecule targeting its structured mRNA
    Peiyuan Zhang, Hye-Jin Park, Jie Zhang, Eunsung Junn, Ryan J. Andrews, Sai Pradeep Velagapudi, Daniel Abegg, Kamalakannan Vishnu, Matthew G. Costales, Jessica L. Childs-Disney, Alexander Adibekian, Walter N. Moss, M. Maral Mouradian, Matthew D. Disney
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.2020; 117(3): 1457.     CrossRef
  • Small molecule recognition of disease-relevant RNA structures
    Samantha M. Meyer, Christopher C. Williams, Yoshihiro Akahori, Toru Tanaka, Haruo Aikawa, Yuquan Tong, Jessica L. Childs-Disney, Matthew D. Disney
    Chemical Society Reviews.2020; 49(19): 7167.     CrossRef
  • Dysregulation of the causative genes for hereditary parkinsonism in the midbrain in Parkinson's disease
    Yun Joong Kim, Junbeom Jeon, Jaemoon Shin, Nan Young Kim, Jeong Hoon Hong, Jae-Min Oh, SangKyoon Hong, Yeo Jin Kim, Young-Eun Kim, Suk Yun Kang, Hyeo-Il Ma, Unjoo Lee, Jeehee Yoon
    Movement Disorders.2017; 32(8): 1211.     CrossRef
  • Anionic liposomes for small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) delivery to primary neuronal cells: Evaluation of alpha-synuclein knockdown efficacy
    Michele Schlich, Francesca Longhena, Gaia Faustini, Caitriona M. O’Driscoll, Chiara Sinico, Anna Maria Fadda, Arianna Bellucci, Francesco Lai
    Nano Research.2017; 10(10): 3496.     CrossRef
  • Immunotherapeutic Approaches Targeting Amyloid-β, α-Synuclein, and Tau for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders
    Elvira Valera, Brian Spencer, Eliezer Masliah
    Neurotherapeutics.2016; 13(1): 179.     CrossRef
  • Development of Nonviral Vectors Targeting the Brain as a Therapeutic Approach For Parkinson's Disease and Other Brain Disorders
    Hayate Javed, Sindhu A Menon, Karima M Al-Mansoori, Abdelmojib Al-Wandi, Nour K Majbour, Mustafa T Ardah, Shiji Varghese, Nishant N Vaikath, M Emdadul Haque, Mimoun Azzouz, Omar MA El-Agnaf
    Molecular Therapy.2016; 24(4): 746.     CrossRef
Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia
Hirokazu Iwamuro
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):8-12.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11002
  • 10,063 View
  • 74 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy from each cortical area is also well preserved in each loop. Moreover, recent studies suggest that not only the parallel processing but also some convergence of information occur through the basal ganglia. Information from cortical areas whose functions are close to each other tends to converge in the basal ganglia. The cortico-basal ganglia loops should be comprehended more as a network rather than as separated subdivisions. However, the functions of this convergence still remain unknown. It is important even for clinical doctors to be well informed about this kind of current knowledge because some symptoms of movement disorders may be explained by disorganization of the information network in the basal ganglia.

One View of the Current State of Understanding in Basal Ganglia Pathophysiology and What is Needed for the Future
Erwin B. Montgomery
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):13-20.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11003
  • 15,837 View
  • 48 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), arguably, is the most dramatic development in movement disorders since the levodopa for Parkinson’s disease. Yet, its mechanisms of action of DBS are unknown. However, DBS related research already has demonstrated that current concepts of basal ganglia pathophysiology are wrong. Specifically, the notion that over-activity of the globus pallidus interna causes parkinsonism, the basis for the most current theories, is no longer tenable. The development of any new theory will be aided by an understanding of how current theories are wrong and why have these flawed theories persist. Many of the problems of current theories are more matters of inference, assumptions, presumptions, and the accepted level of ambiguity than they are of fact. Consequently, it is imperative that these issues be addressed. Just as the inappropriate use of a tool or method is grounds for criticism, methods of reasoning are tools that can be used inappropriately and should be subject to discussion just as misuse of any other tool. Thorough criticism can provide very important lesions though the process could be mistaken as harsh or personal; neither is the case here. At the least, such analyzes can point to potential pitfalls that could be avoided in the development of new theories. As will be discussed, theories are important for the development of therapies but perhaps most important, for the acceptance of new therapies, as was the case for the recent resurgence of interest in surgical therapies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Basal ganglia and beyond: The interplay between motor and cognitive aspects in Parkinson’s disease rehabilitation
    Davide Ferrazzoli, Paola Ortelli, Graziella Madeo, Nir Giladi, Giselle M. Petzinger, Giuseppe Frazzitta
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews.2018; 90: 294.     CrossRef
  • Neuronal Entropy-Rate Feature of Entopeduncular Nucleus in Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease
    Olivier Darbin, Xingxing Jin, Christof Von Wrangel, Kerstin Schwabe, Atsushi Nambu, Dean K. Naritoku, Joachim K. Krauss, Mesbah Alam
    International Journal of Neural Systems.2016; 26(02): 1550038.     CrossRef
Electrophysiologic Evaluation of Psychogenic Movement Disorders
Pramod Kumar Pal
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):21-32.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11004
  • 28,531 View
  • 309 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) are a group of disorders which are in the border zone between neurology and psychiatry. All necessary laboratory investigations should be done to rule out an underlying organic disorder. While clinical acumen of a trained movement disorder specialist may be sufficient to diagnose most PMD, there are clinical situations where electrophysiological tests are required either to rule out an organic movement disorder or even diagnose a PMD. Current electrophysiological test are most useful for tremor, followed by jerks and least for spasms or dystonia. Commonly used electrophysiologic tests include multichannel surface electromyography (EMG), accelerometry, electroencephalography time locked with EMG, premovement potential (Bereitschaftspotential), and somatosensory evoked potentials. Psychogenic tremor is a low frequency tremor with variable frequency and duration of EMG bursts, entrainable, has a high coherence with voluntary movements, and presence of coactivation sign. Patients with psychogenic jerks have well organized triphasic pattern of activation of agonist and antagonist muscles. The jerks are associated with EMG bursts of long duration (usually > 70 ms), long and variable latencies in stimulus induced jerks, absence of craniocaudal pattern of muscle recruitment in apparent startle response, and often a Breitschaftspotential (premovement potential) precedes the jerk. Electrophysiological characterization of psychogenic dystonia is difficult and the tests are usually performed to rule out organic dystonia with characteristic findings. Finally, caution should be exerted in interpreting the electrophysiological tests as both false positive and false negative diagnosis of PMD may still occur.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Video electroencephalogram combined with electromyography in the diagnosis of hyperkinetic movement disorders with an unknown cause
    Jianhua Chen, Xiangqin Zhou, Qiang Lu, Liri Jin, Yan Huang
    Neurological Sciences.2021; 42(9): 3801.     CrossRef
  • Suggestibility as a valuable criterion for laboratory-supported definite functional movement disorders
    Gerard Saranza, Daniel Vargas-Mendez, Anthony E. Lang, Robert Chen
    Clinical Neurophysiology Practice.2021; 6: 103.     CrossRef
  • Principles of Electrophysiological Assessments for Movement Disorders
    Kai-Hsiang Stanley Chen, Robert Chen
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2020; 13(1): 27.     CrossRef
  • A case of abdominal functional myoclonus analyzed by movement related cortical potentials
    Ryosuke Urabe, Masaya Kubota
    Brain and Development.2020; 42(9): 700.     CrossRef
  • Focal localized enhanced physiological tremor after physical insult
    Sang-Won Yoo, Myungah Lee, Joong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Soo Lee
    Neurological Sciences.2019; 40(12): 2641.     CrossRef
  • Sleep-Related Movement Disorders: Hypnic Jerks
    Robyn Whitney, Shelly K. Weiss
    Current Sleep Medicine Reports.2018; 4(1): 19.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Orthostatic Hypotension in Drug-Naïve Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Hyo-Jin Bae, Sang-Myung Cheon, Jae Woo Kim
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):33-37.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11005
  • 8,519 View
  • 57 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is known to be present even in patients with early Parkinson’s disease (PD). To affirm the presence of OH and find correlation between OH and other dysautonomic symptoms in PD, this study has done in newly-diagnosed PD patients.

Methods

Forty-five non-demented patients with no prior history of treatment for PD were recruited (17 men, 63.8 ± 10.1 years of age). All the patients were evaluated for OH before starting medications. Autonomic symptoms were evaluated with structured questionnaires. Clinical characteristics of PD were evaluated (median Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.0 (1–3), 1.3 ± 1.1 years of disease duration), and comorbid medical conditions that could affect blood pressure were also recorded.

Results

OH was prevalent, and eighteen patients (40%) showed orthostatic hypotension, and twenty-seven (60%) did not (normotensive group). There was no significant difference in demographic and clinical characteristics between groups. The presence or severity of symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in the OH group also not differed from those of the normotensive group.

Conclusions

OH was prevalent even in the early stage of PD, and was not related to presence or severity of any other symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. Our findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to OH from the early stage of disease.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Pronounced Orthostatic Hypotension in GBA-Related Parkinson’s Disease
    Tatiana Usnich, Henrike Hanssen, Katja Lohmann, Christina Lohse, Christine Klein, Meike Kasten, Norbert Brüggemann
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2022; 12(5): 1539.     CrossRef
  • Could Small Heat Shock Protein HSP27 Be a First-Line Target for Preventing Protein Aggregation in Parkinson’s Disease?
    Javier Navarro-Zaragoza, Lorena Cuenca-Bermejo, Pilar Almela, María-Luisa Laorden, María-Trinidad Herrero
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2021; 22(6): 3038.     CrossRef
  • Delayed orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson’s disease
    Sang-Won Yoo, Joong-Seok Kim, Ji-Yeon Yoo, Eunkyeong Yun, Uicheul Yoon, Na-Young Shin, Kwang-Soo Lee
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension in early stage Parkinson's disease: New insights from the first 105 patients of the BoProPark study
    Francesca Baschieri, Luisa Sambati, Pietro Guaraldi, Giorgio Barletta, Pietro Cortelli, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2021; 93: 12.     CrossRef
  • Trajectory Analysis of Orthostatic Hypotension in Parkinson’s Disease: Results From Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative Cohort
    Kui Chen, Kangshuai Du, Yichen Zhao, Yongzhe Gu, Yanxin Zhao
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: Implications for pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment
    Zhichun Chen, Guanglu Li, Jun Liu
    Neurobiology of Disease.2020; 134: 104700.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and factors related to orthostatic syndromes in recently diagnosed, drug-naïve patients with Parkinson disease
    Cecilia Quarracino, Matilde Otero-Losada, Francisco Capani, Santiago Pérez-Lloret
    Clinical Autonomic Research.2020; 30(3): 265.     CrossRef
  • Orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson disease
    Ylva Hivand Hiorth, Kenn Freddy Pedersen, Ingvild Dalen, Ole-Bjørn Tysnes, Guido Alves
    Neurology.2019; 93(16): e1526.     CrossRef
  • The range and nature of non-motor symptoms in drug-naive Parkinson’s disease patients: a state-of-the-art systematic review
    Panagiotis Zis, Roberto Erro, Courtney C Walton, Anna Sauerbier, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Orthostatic Hypotension and Cognitive Impairment in <i>De Novo</i> Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
    Hyo-Jin Bae, Jun-Ho Lim, Sang-Myung Cheon
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2014; 7(2): 102.     CrossRef
The Sequence Effect in De Novo Parkinson’s Disease
Suk Yun Kang, Toshiaki Wasaka, Ejaz A. Shamim, Sungyoung Auh, Yoshino Ueki, Nguyet Dang, Mark Hallett
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):38-40.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11006
  • 11,064 View
  • 52 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

The sequence effect (SE) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) denotes progressive slowness in speed or progressive decrease in amplitude of repetitive movements. It is a well-known feature of bradykinesia and is considered unique in PD. Until now, it was well-documented in advanced PD, but not in drug-naïve PD. The aim of this study is to know whether the SE can also be measured in drug-naïve PD.

Methods

We measured the SE with a computer-based, modified Purdue pegboard in 4 drug-naïve PD patients, which matched our previous study with advanced PD patients.

Results

We observed progressive slowness during movement, that is, SE. Statistical analysis showed a strong statistical trend toward the SE with the right hand, but no significance with the left hand. There was no statistical significance of SE with either the more or less affected hands.

Conclusions

These results indicate that the SE can be identified in drug-naïve PD, as well as in advanced PD, with objective measurements and support the idea that the SE is a feature in PD observed during the early stage of the disease without medication.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Neurofeedback-guided kinesthetic motor imagery training in Parkinson’s disease: Randomized trial
    Sule Tinaz, Serageldin Kamel, Sai S. Aravala, Mohamed Elfil, Ahmed Bayoumi, Amar Patel, Dustin Scheinost, Rajita Sinha, Michelle Hampson
    NeuroImage: Clinical.2022; 34: 102980.     CrossRef
  • The Pathophysiological Correlates of Parkinson's Disease Clinical Subtypes
    Daniele Belvisi, Andrea Fabbrini, Maria Ilenia De Bartolo, Matteo Costanzo, Nicoletta Manzo, Giovanni Fabbrini, Giovanni Defazio, Antonella Conte, Alfredo Berardelli
    Movement Disorders.2021; 36(2): 370.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Intensive Neurorehabilitation on Sequence Effect in Parkinson's Disease Patients With and Without Freezing of Gait
    Alessia Putortì, Michele Corrado, Micol Avenali, Daniele Martinelli, Marta Allena, Silvano Cristina, Valentina Grillo, Luca Martinis, Stefano Tamburin, Mariano Serrao, Antonio Pisani, Cristina Tassorelli, Roberto De Icco
    Frontiers in Neurology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evolving concepts on bradykinesia
    Matteo Bologna, Giulia Paparella, Alfonso Fasano, Mark Hallett, Alfredo Berardelli
    Brain.2020; 143(3): 727.     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of Exercise on the Sequence Effect in Parkinson’s Disease
    Suk Yun Kang, Young Ho Sohn
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2020; 13(3): 213.     CrossRef
  • Neurophysiological correlates of bradykinesia in Parkinson’s disease
    Matteo Bologna, Andrea Guerra, Giulia Paparella, Laura Giordo, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Anna Rita Vestri, John C Rothwell, Alfredo Berardelli
    Brain.2018; 141(8): 2432.     CrossRef
  • Insula as the Interface Between Body Awareness and Movement: A Neurofeedback-Guided Kinesthetic Motor Imagery Study in Parkinson’s Disease
    Sule Tinaz, Kiran Para, Ana Vives-Rodriguez, Valeria Martinez-Kaigi, Keerthana Nalamada, Mine Sezgin, Dustin Scheinost, Michelle Hampson, Elan D. Louis, R. Todd Constable
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sequence Effect in Parkinson’s Disease Is Related to Motor Energetic Cost
    Sule Tinaz, Ajay S. Pillai, Mark Hallett
    Frontiers in Neurology.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Bradykinesia in early and advanced Parkinson's disease
    Matteo Bologna, Giorgio Leodori, Paola Stirpe, Giulia Paparella, Donato Colella, Daniele Belvisi, Alfonso Fasano, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2016; 369: 286.     CrossRef
  • Neural correlates of progressive reduction of bradykinesia in de novo Parkinson's disease
    Eeksung Lee, Ji Eun Lee, Kwangsun Yoo, Jin Yong Hong, Jungsu Oh, Mun Kyung Sunwoo, Jae Seung Kim, Yong Jeong, Phil Hyu Lee, Young Ho Sohn, Suk Yun Kang
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef
Cognitive Impairments in Multiple System Atrophy of the Cerebellar Type
Hyun J. Hong, Sook Keun. Song, Phil Hyu Lee, Young Ho Sohn, Ji E. Lee
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):41-45.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11007
  • 10,966 View
  • 68 Download
  • 10 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

We investigated the cognitive profiles in a large sample of patients with multiple system atrophy-cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) and compared directly them in patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C without dementia and control subjects with intact cognition.

Methods

We prospectively enrolled 26 patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C. All patients underwent a standardized neuropsychological test of the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery.

Results

The score of Korean version of the Mini- Mental State Examination was significantly lower in patients with MSA-C (27.2 ± 2.5) than in control subjects (28.9 ± 1.0, p = 0.003). Patients with MSA-C showed a significantly worse performance in visuospatial function, 3 words recall, verbal immediate, delayed and recognition memory, visual delayed memory, phonemic and sementic Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and ideomotor praxis (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Patients with MSA-C show more severe and more widespread cognitive dysfunctions than controls. Our results also indicate that cognitive dysfunction in patients with MCA-C is suggestive of disruption of the cerebellocortical circuits.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cognition in Patients With Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Its Neuroimaging Correlation: A Prospective Case-Control Study
    Santosh Dash, Rohan Mahale, M. Netravathi, Nitish L Kamble, Vikram Holla, Ravi Yadav, Pramod K Pal
    Cureus.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Cognitive Profile of Atypical Parkinsonism: A Meta-Analysis
    Simona Raimo, Mariachiara Gaita, Maria Cropano, Giusi Mautone, Alfonsina D’Iorio, Luigi Trojano, Gabriella Santangelo
    Neuropsychology Review.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cognition in multiple system atrophy: a single‐center cohort study
    Sabine Eschlböck, Margarete Delazer, Florian Krismer, Thomas Bodner, Alessandra Fanciulli, Beatrice Heim, Antonio Heras Garvin, Christine Kaindlstorfer, Elfriede Karner, Katherina Mair, Christoph Rabensteiner, Cecilia Raccagni, Klaus Seppi, Werner Poewe,
    Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology.2020; 7(2): 219.     CrossRef
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    Kurt A. Jellinger
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2020; 127(7): 1031.     CrossRef
  • An update on MSA: premotor and non-motor features open a window of opportunities for early diagnosis and intervention
    Viorica Chelban, Daniela Catereniuc, Daniela Aftene, Alexandru Gasnas, Ekawat Vichayanrat, Valeria Iodice, Stanislav Groppa, Henry Houlden
    Journal of Neurology.2020; 267(9): 2754.     CrossRef
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    Jing Guo, Fuying Liu, Tingting Liu, Xin Zhang, Yong Luo
    Journal of International Medical Research.2019; 47(11): 5839.     CrossRef
  • Cognitive impairment before changes appear on [18F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography images in a patient with possible early-stage cerebellar-predominant multiple system atrophy
    Masahiko Takaya, Masahiko Atsumi, Tomoyuki Hirose, Kazunari Ishii, Osamu Shirakawa
    Psychogeriatrics.2016; 16(3): 216.     CrossRef
  • Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome: phenotypic comparisons with other movement disorders
    Erin E. Robertson, Deborah A. Hall, Andrew R. McAsey, Joan A. O’Keefe
    The Clinical Neuropsychologist.2016; 30(6): 849.     CrossRef
  • A brain-targeted, modified neurosin (kallikrein-6) reduces α-synuclein accumulation in a mouse model of multiple system atrophy
    Brian Spencer, Elvira Valera, Edward Rockenstein, Margarita Trejo-Morales, Anthony Adame, Eliezer Masliah
    Molecular Neurodegeneration.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cognitive Impairment and Its Structural Correlates in the Parkinsonian Subtype of Multiple System Atrophy
    Ji Sun Kim, Jin-ju Yang, Dong-Kyun Lee, Jong-min Lee, Jinyoung Youn, Jin Whan Cho
    Neurodegenerative Diseases.2015; 15(5): 294.     CrossRef
Case Reports
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Associated with Pramipexole in a Patient with Parkinson’s Disease
Yoonjae Choi, Jeong Jin Park, Na Young Ryoo, So-Hyun Kim, Changseok Song, Im-Tae Han, Chang-Gi Hong, Choong Kun Ha, Seong Hye Choi
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):46-48.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11008
Retraction in: J Mov Disord 2015;8(3):147
  • 19,315 View
  • 33 Download
  • 3 Citations
Unilateral Negative Myoclonus Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis
Jin-Mo Park, Jin-Sung Park, Yong-Won Kim, Ho-Won Lee, Da-In Lee, Sung-Pa Park, Hyun Seok Song
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):49-52.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11009
  • 24,876 View
  • 52 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Various neurologic manifestations of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis have been reported on the literatures. Chorea, ballism, choreoathetosis and myoclonus were reported as movement disorders which might be related with brain lesion by HSV encephalitis, but negative myoclonus (NM) has never been reported before. NM can be characterized as a shock-like involuntary jerky movement caused by a sudden, brief interruption of muscle activity. We experienced a case of HSV encephalitis with NM in unilateral arm and leg. In polygraphic monitoring, electroencephalography (EMG) silent periods are 50–250 ms in duration with no detectable EMG correlate.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Myoclonus in the critically ill: Diagnosis, management, and clinical impact
    Raoul Sutter, Anette Ristic, Stephan Rüegg, Peter Fuhr
    Clinical Neurophysiology.2016; 127(1): 67.     CrossRef
  • Chorée aiguë après encéphalite herpétique : réplication virale ou mécanisme immunologique ?
    H. Benrhouma, A. Nasri, I. Kraoua, H. Klaa, I. Turki, N. Gouider-Khouja
    Archives de Pédiatrie.2015; 22(9): 961.     CrossRef
A Case with Improvement of Blepharospasm by Zolpidem
Munkyung Sunwoo, Junghee Cho, Jun Hong Lee, Gyu Sik Kim, Jong Hun Kim, Sun-Ah Choi
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):53-54.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11010
  • 19,855 View
  • 57 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Zolpidem is usually used for the treatment of insomnia as a hypnotic drug. It was also suggested to be effective in the treatment of dystonia in some studies. A 74-year-old woman had been suffering from frequent and intense bilateral spasms of the eyelids for 20 years. She has been treated with botulinum toxin injection and taken some medications. But, she experienced a little effect and was not satisfied with those treatments. Her symptom was improved after taking Zolpidem which had been prescribed for insomnia by her primary physician. She did not show any improvement after placebo injection and neostigmine test. This is the first report which shows improvement of isolated blepharospasm by Zolpidem in Korea. Zolpidem can be one of useful alternative pharmacological treatments for blepharospasm. Further randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies are needed to validate this finding.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Zolpidem for the Treatment of Dystonia
    Stephanie Patricia J. Badillo, Roland Dominic G. Jamora
    Frontiers in Neurology.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Can a Positive Allosteric Modulation of GABAergic Receptors Improve Motor Symptoms in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease? The Potential Role of Zolpidem in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease
    Antonio Daniele, Francesco Panza, Antonio Greco, Giancarlo Logroscino, Davide Seripa
    Parkinson's Disease.2016; 2016: 1.     CrossRef
  • Medical treatment of dystonia
    Pichet Termsarasab, Thananan Thammongkolchai, Steven J. Frucht
    Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders