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Review Article
New Perspective on Parkinsonism in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration
Hee Kyung Park, Sun J. Chung
J Mov Disord. 2013;6(1):1-8.
  • 24,273 View
  • 235 Download
  • 25 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common type of presenile dementia. Three clinical prototypes have been defined; behavioral variant FTD, semantic dementia, and progressive nonfluent aphasia. Progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and motor neuron disease may possess clinical and pathological characteristics that overlap with FTD, and it is possible that they may all belong to the same clinicopathological spectrum. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a clinicopathological syndrome that encompasses a heterogenous group of neurodegenerative disorders. Owing to the advancement in the field of molecular genetics, diagnostic imaging, and pathology, FTLD has been the focus of great interest. Nevertheless, parkinsonism in FTLD has received relatively less attention. Parkinsonism is found in approximately 20–30% of patients in FTLD. Furthermore, parkinsonism can be seen in all FTLD subtypes, and some patients with familial and sporadic FTLD can present with prominent parkinsonism. Therefore, there is a need to understand parkinsonism in FTLD in order to obtain a better understanding of the disease. With regard to the clinical characteristics, the akinetic rigid type of parkinsonism has predominantly been described. Parkinsonism is frequently observed in familial FTD, more specifically, in FTD with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17q (FTDP-17). The genes associated with parkinsonism are microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT), progranulin (GRN or PGRN), and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) repeat expansion. The neural substrate of parkinsonism remains to be unveiled. Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging revealed decreased uptake of DAT, and imaging findings indicated atrophic changes of the basal ganglia. Parkinsonism can be an important feature in FTLD and, therefore, increased attention is needed on the subject.


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  • Demencias degenerativas: ¿un dilema de síndromes o de enfermedades?
    A. Robles Bayón
    Neurología.2022; 37(6): 480.     CrossRef
  • Degenerative dementias: a question of syndrome or disease?
    A. Robles Bayón
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  • Deficient neurotransmitter systems and synaptic function in frontotemporal lobar degeneration—Insights into disease mechanisms and current therapeutic approaches
    Nadine Huber, Sonja Korhonen, Dorit Hoffmann, Stina Leskelä, Hannah Rostalski, Anne M. Remes, Paavo Honkakoski, Eino Solje, Annakaisa Haapasalo
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    Murat Gultekin, Zeynep Tufekcioglu, Recep Baydemir
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  • Mouse models of frontotemporal dementia: A comparison of phenotypes with clinical symptomatology
    Rebekah M. Ahmed, Muireann Irish, Janet van Eersel, Arne Ittner, Yazi D. Ke, Alexander Volkerling, Julia van der Hoven, Kimi Tanaka, Tim Karl, Michael Kassiou, Jillian J. Kril, Olivier Piguet, Jürgen Götz, Matthew C. Kiernan, Glenda M. Halliday, John R. H
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews.2017; 74: 126.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2017; 18(4): 785.     CrossRef
  • Intrinsic functional connectivity alterations in progressive supranuclear palsy: Differential effects in frontal cortex, motor, and midbrain networks
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  • Phenotypic variability related to C9orf72 mutation in a large Sardinian kindred
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    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration.2016; 17(3-4): 245.     CrossRef
  • Clinical features ofTBK1carriers compared withC9orf72,GRNand non-mutation carriers in a Belgian cohort
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  • Characterization of Movement Disorder Phenomenology in Genetically Proven, Familial Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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    Ione O. C. Woollacott, Jonathan D. Rohrer
    Journal of Neurochemistry.2016; 138(S1): 6.     CrossRef
  • Genetics of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
    Sun Young Im, Young Eun Kim, Yun Joong Kim
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2015; 8(3): 122.     CrossRef
Original Article
Lateralized Effects of Unilateral Thalamotomy and Thalamic Stimulation in Patients with Essential Tremor
Mi J. Kim, Sang R. Jeon, Sung R. Kim, Myoung C. Lee, Sun J. Chung
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(2):64-67.
  • 16,188 View
  • 74 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

Stereotactic thalamotomy has been an effective surgical procedure in the treatment of medically refractory essential tremor (ET), however, little is known about the bilateral effects of unilateral ventralis intermedius (Vim) thalamotomy and Vim deep brain stimulation (DBS). We studied the lateralized effects of unilateral Vim thalamotomy and Vim DBS in ET patients.


Vim thalamotomy was performed in 6 patients and Vim DBS in 6. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively using the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor (CRST).


The contralateral Part A (tremor localization/severity rating) and Part B (specific motor tasks/function rating) subscores, and axial subscores of CRST significantly improved after unilateral Vim thalamotomy or Vim DBS. On the side ipsilateral to surgery, ET patients demonstrated no significant improvements in the Part A and Part B subscores of CRST. The Part C (functional disabilities resulting from tremor) subscores and total scores of CRST were significantly improved after surgery.


Vim thalamotomy and DBS may be equally effective for the management of contralateral and axial tremor in ET patients, but both interventions may not improve tremor on the side ipsilateral to surgery.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Displaced center of pressure on the treated side in individuals with essential tremor after radiofrequency ablation: a longitudinal case–control study
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    Frontiers in Neurology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Commentary on: A Network Approach to Understanding the Effects of Focused Ultrasound for Essential Tremor: Insights into Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Imaging Biomarkers
    Prashin Unadkat, David Eidelberg
    Neurotherapeutics.2022; 19(6): 1883.     CrossRef
  • Deep Brain Stimulation for Tremor: Update on Long-Term Outcomes, Target Considerations and Future Directions
    Naomi I. Kremer, Rik W. J. Pauwels, Nicolò G. Pozzi, Florian Lange, Jonas Roothans, Jens Volkmann, Martin M. Reich
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(16): 3468.     CrossRef
  • Clinical improvement associated with targeted interruption of the cerebellothalamic tract following MR-guided focused ultrasound for essential tremor
    J. Levi Chazen, Harini Sarva, Philip E. Stieg, Robert J. Min, Douglas J. Ballon, Kane O. Pryor, Paul M. Riegelhaupt, Michael G. Kaplitt
    Journal of Neurosurgery.2018; 129(2): 315.     CrossRef
  • Innovations in Functional Neurosurgery and Anesthetic Implications
    Lauren K. Dunn, Marcel E. Durieux, W. Jeffrey Elias, Edward C. Nemergut, Bhiken I. Naik
    Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology.2018; 30(1): 18.     CrossRef
  • Surgical treatments for essential tremor
    Rodger J. Elble, Ludy Shih, Jeffrey W. Cozzens
    Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics.2018; 18(4): 303.     CrossRef
  • The Current Status of Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Parkinson Disease in the Republic of Korea
    Jung-Il Lee
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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders