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Brief communication
Effectiveness of Exercise on the Sequence Effect in Parkinson’s Disease
Suk Yun Kang, Young Ho Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(3):213-217.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20045
  • 3,461 View
  • 120 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
To determine the benefits of motor training on the sequence effect (SE), an essential component of bradykinesia in Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Methods
Seven patients with de novo PD participated in this study. The patients performed regular pentagon drawing tests and exercises during four visits. The first two visits occurred before the start of medication, and the last two visits occurred at least six months after the start of medication. We assessed the severity of bradykinesia and SE at each visit and compared the results before and after exercise in both the de novo and treatment conditions.
Results
In the de novo condition, the severity of bradykinesia significantly improved after motor training (p = 0.018), but it did not resolve and only showed a trend of improvement after treatment (p = 0.068). The severity of the SE decreased significantly in the drug-naïve condition (p = 0.028) but not after medication (p = 0.273).
Conclusion
Our study suggests that regular motor training may be beneficial for the SE in PD.
Original Articles
Analysis of the Substantia Innominata Volume in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease with Dementia, Dementia with Lewy Bodies, and Alzheimer’s Disease
Hee Jin Kim, Ji Eun Lee, Soo Jeong Shin, Young Ho Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(2):68-72.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11014
  • 11,025 View
  • 73 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

The substantia innominata (SI) contains the nucleus basalis of Meynert, which is the major source of cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex. We hypothesized that degeneration of the SI and its relationship to general cognitive performance differs in amyloidopathy and synucleinopathy.

Methods

We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric analysis to evaluate the SI volume in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), PD with dementia (PDD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and healthy elderly controls. The correlation between SI volume and general cognitive performance, measured using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), was examined.

Results

Compared to control subjects, the mean normalized SI volume was significantly decreased in all of the other groups. The normalized SI volume did not differ between the subjects with PDD and DLB, whereas it was significantly smaller in subjects with PDD (p = 0.029) and DLB (p = 0.011) compared with AD. In subjects with PD-related cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, PDD, or DLB), there was a significant positive correlation between the SI volume and K-MMSE score (r = 0.366, p < 0.001), whereas no correlation was seen in subjects with AD-related cognitive impairment (aMCI or AD).

Conclusions

Our data suggest that the SI loss is greater in synucleinopathy-related dementia (PDD or DLB) than in AD and that the contribution of the SI to cognitive performance is greater in synucleinopathy than in amyloidopathy.

Cognitive Impairments in Multiple System Atrophy of the Cerebellar Type
Hyun J. Hong, Sook Keun. Song, Phil Hyu Lee, Young Ho Sohn, Ji E. Lee
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):41-45.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11007
  • 10,527 View
  • 68 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

We investigated the cognitive profiles in a large sample of patients with multiple system atrophy-cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) and compared directly them in patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C without dementia and control subjects with intact cognition.

Methods

We prospectively enrolled 26 patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C. All patients underwent a standardized neuropsychological test of the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery.

Results

The score of Korean version of the Mini- Mental State Examination was significantly lower in patients with MSA-C (27.2 ± 2.5) than in control subjects (28.9 ± 1.0, p = 0.003). Patients with MSA-C showed a significantly worse performance in visuospatial function, 3 words recall, verbal immediate, delayed and recognition memory, visual delayed memory, phonemic and sementic Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and ideomotor praxis (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Patients with MSA-C show more severe and more widespread cognitive dysfunctions than controls. Our results also indicate that cognitive dysfunction in patients with MCA-C is suggestive of disruption of the cerebellocortical circuits.

Case Report
Restlessness with Manic Episodes due to Right Parietal Infarction
Suk Yun Kang, Jong Won Paik, Young Ho Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2010;3(1):22-24.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.10007
  • 12,394 View
  • 77 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Mood disorders following acute stroke are relatively common. However, restlessness with manic episodes has rarely been reported. Lesions responsible for post-stroke mania can be located in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, and temporal and frontal lobes. We present a patient who exhibited restlessness with manic episodes after an acute infarction in the right parietal lobe, and summarize the case reports involving post-stroke mania. The right parietal stroke causing mania in our case is a novel observation that may help us to understand the mechanisms underlying restlessness with mania following acute stroke.

Original Articles
Hyperhomocysteinemia in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Relationship to Vitamin B Level
Hae-Won Shin, Young Ho Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2009;2(1):33-36.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.09008
  • 8,084 View
  • 78 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background:

Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels are increased in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) undergoing levodopa treatment. We measured the Hcy levels in PD patients and assessed the relationship between Hcy level and features of PD, cognitive function and vitamin B status.

Methods:

Concentrations of Hcy, vitamin B12 and folate were measured in 33 PD patients and 41 normal control individuals. Mini-mental Status Examination (MMSE) was assessed in all subjects. In PD patients, Hoehn & Yahr stage and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores were also examined.

Results:

Plasma Hcy levels were lower in PD patients than in control individuals. Hcy level was inversely correlated with vitamin B12 and folate levels in the PD group but not in control individuals. Age, symptom duration, UPDRS motor scores, MMSE score, levodopa dose and duration of treatment did not differ between patients with Hcy >14 μmol/L and those with Hcy <14 μmol/L.

Conclusions:

Plasma Hcy levels were increased in PD patients with levodopa treatment and were related to vitamin B level. These results indicate that vitamin supplementation may be beneficial in levodopa-treated PD patients, although hyperhomocysteinemia did not affect the motor and cognitive status of PD patients.

Unilateral Standing Leg Tremor as the Initial Manifestation of Parkinson Disease
Suk Yun Kang, Sook-Keun Song, Jin-Soo Kim, Young Ho Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2009;2(1):29-32.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.09007
  • 9,804 View
  • 86 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background:

The aim of this study was to analyze the different forms of leg tremors exhibited while standing in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and to determine if the type of leg tremor exhibited is indicative of prognosis or treatment response in PD patients.

Methods:

We studied the clinical characteristics of five PD patients (all women; mean age, 59 years, range, 53–64 years) with unilateral standing leg tremor as the initial manifestation of PD, including their electrophysiological findings and the results of long-term follow-up.

Results:

For each patient, parkinsonism either existed at the time of onset of the initial symptoms or developed later. Patient responses to drugs were generally good, but one patient showed a poor response to drugs, even though she had only a low frequency leg tremor. For two patients whom we could observe during the 10-year follow-up period, neither the leg tremor nor parkinsonism was aggravated.

Conclusions:

There are two forms of unilateral standing leg tremor in PD. One form is high frequency, similar to the primary orthostatic tremor. The other is low frequency and similar to the parkinsonian resting tremor. Based on these observations, it appears that progression might be slow if PD patients have standing leg tremor as the initial manifestation.


JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders