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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders

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Case Report
Effect of Chelation Therapy on a Korean Patient With Brain Manganese Deposition Resulting From a Compound Heterozygous Mutation in the SLC39A14 Gene
Jae-Hyeok Lee, Jin-Hong Shin
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(2):171-174.   Published online March 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21143
  • 1,079 View
  • 144 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Mutations in the manganese transporter gene SLC39A14 lead to inherited disorders of manganese metabolism. Chelation therapy with edetate calcium disodium (CaNa2EDTA) is known to effectively reduce manganese deposition. We describe the first identified Korean case of SLC39A14-associated manganism and the treatment response to a 5-year chelation therapy. An 18-year-old female presented with childhood-onset dystonia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T1 hyperintensity throughout the basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum, cerebral and cerebellar white matter, and pituitary gland. Blood manganese levels were elevated, and whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in SLC39A14. Treatment with intravenous CaNa2EDTA led to a significant reduction in serum manganese levels and T1 hyperintensities. However, her dystonia improved insignificantly. Hence, early diagnosis of this genetic disorder is essential because it is potentially treatable. Even though our treatment did not significantly reverse the establish deficits, chelation therapy could have been more effective if it was started at an earlier stage of the disease.
Review Article
Manganese and Movement Disorders: A Review
Dinkar Kulshreshtha, Jacky Ganguly, Mandar Jog
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(2):93-102.   Published online April 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20123
  • 5,269 View
  • 337 Download
  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Scientific and technological advances achieved with industrial expansion have led to an ever-increasing demand for heavy metals. This demand has, in turn, led to increased contamination of soil, water and air with these metals. Chronic exposure to metals may be detrimental not only to occupational workers but also to the nonoccupational population exposed to these metals. Manganese (Mn), a commonly used heavy metal, is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic processes that drive biological functions. However, it is also a potential source of neurotoxicity, particularly in the field of movement disorders. The typical manifestation of Mn overexposure is parkinsonism, which may be difficult to differentiate from the more common idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. In addition to environmental exposure to Mn, other potential etiologies causing hypermanganesemia include systemic health conditions, total parenteral nutrition and genetic mutations causing Mn dyshomeostasis. In this review, we critically analyze Mn and discuss its sources of exposure, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations. We have highlighted the global public health impact of Mn and emphasize that movement disorder specialists should record a detailed social and occupational history to ensure that a toxic etiology is not misdiagnosed as a neurodegenerative disease. In the absence of a definite therapeutic option, early diagnosis and timely institution of preventive measures are the keys to managing its toxic effects.

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders