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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders



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Emotion Recognition in Multiple System Atrophy: An Exploratory Eye-Tracking Study
Victoria Sidoroff, Federico Carbone, Philipp Ellmerer, Stefanie Bair, Alexandra Hoffmann, Thomas Maran, Florian Krismer, Philipp Mahlknecht, Katherina Mair, Cecilia Raccagni, Jean-Pierre Ndayisaba, Klaus Seppi, Gregor K. Wenning, Atbin Djamshidian
J Mov Disord. 2024;17(1):38-46.   Published online September 26, 2023
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  • 79 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Emotional processing is a core feature of social interactions and has been well studied in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD), albeit with contradictory results. However, these studies excluded patients with atypical parkinsonism, such as multiple system atrophy (MSA). The objective of this exploratory study was to provide better insights into emotion processing in patients with MSA using eye tracking data.
We included 21 MSA patients, 15 PD patients and 19 matched controls in this study. Participants performed a dynamic and a static emotion recognition task, and gaze fixations were analyzed in different areas of interest. Participants underwent neuropsychological testing and assessment of depression and alexithymia.
MSA patients were less accurate in recognizing anger than controls (p = 0.02) and had overall fewer fixations than controls (p = 0.001). In the static task, MSA patients had fewer fixations (p < 0.001) and a longer time to first fixation (p = 0.026) on the eye region. Furthermore, MSA patients had a longer fixation duration overall than PD patients (p = 0.004) and longer fixations on the nose than controls (p = 0.005). Alexithymia scores were higher in MSA patients compared to controls (p = 0.038).
This study demonstrated impaired recognition of anger in MSA patients compared to HCs. Fewer and later fixations on the eyes along with a center bias suggest avoidance of eye contact, which may be a characteristic gaze behavior in MSA patients.
Apathy and Olfactory Dysfunction in Early Parkinson’s Disease
Jin Yong Hong, Mun Kyung Sunwoo, Jee Hyun Ham, Jae Jung Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(1):21-25.   Published online January 31, 2015
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  • 111 Download
  • 22 Web of Science
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective Olfactory and emotional dysfunctions are very common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Olfaction and emotions share common neuroanatomical substrates. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the association between olfactory and emotional dysfunctions in patients with PD.
Methods Parkinson’s disease patients who had been assessed for their olfactory function and neuropsychiatric symptoms including emotional dysfunction were included. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between low olfaction and different neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Results The patients with low olfaction (cross cultural smell identification test score ≤ 6) showed a higher prevalence of apathy when compared with those with high olfaction, whereas the frequencies of other neuropsychiatric symptoms were comparable between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of apathy/indifference [odds ratio (OR) = 2.859, p = 0.007], age 70 years or more (OR = 2.281, p = 0.009), and the male gender (OR = 1.916, p = 0.030) were significantly associated with low olfaction.
Conclusions Our results demonstrate that apathy/indifference is a unique emotional dysfunction associated with olfactory dysfunction in PD. The findings also suggest that PD patients with low olfaction have a high prevalence of apathy.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Clinical features and neurobiochemical mechanisms of olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson disease
    Ruidan Wang, Tenghong Lian, Mingyue He, Peng Guo, Shuyang Yu, Lijun Zuo, Yang Hu, Wei Zhang
    Journal of Neurology.2024; 271(4): 1959.     CrossRef
  • Neurons, Nose, and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Olfactory Function and Cognitive Impairment
    Irene Fatuzzo, Giovanni Francesco Niccolini, Federica Zoccali, Luca Cavalcanti, Mario Giuseppe Bellizzi, Gabriele Riccardi, Marco de Vincentiis, Marco Fiore, Carla Petrella, Antonio Minni, Christian Barbato
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(3): 2117.     CrossRef
  • Olfactory dysfunction is associated with motor function only in tremor-dominant Parkinson’s disease
    Fardin Nabizadeh, Kasra Pirahesh, Elham Khalili
    Neurological Sciences.2022; 43(7): 4193.     CrossRef
  • The Power of Odor Persuasion: The Incorporation of Olfactory Cues in Virtual Environments for Personalized Relaxation
    Silvia Francesca Maria Pizzoli, Dario Monzani, Ketti Mazzocco, Emanuela Maggioni, Gabriella Pravettoni
    Perspectives on Psychological Science.2022; 17(3): 652.     CrossRef
  • Olfaction and apathy in early idiopathic Parkinson's disease
    Alfonso E. Martinez-Nunez, Kaitie Latack, Miguel Situ-Kcomt, Abhimanyu Mahajan
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2022; 439: 120314.     CrossRef
  • Apathy in Parkinson’s Disease: Defining the Park Apathy Subtype
    Ségolène De Waele, Patrick Cras, David Crosiers
    Brain Sciences.2022; 12(7): 923.     CrossRef
  • α‐Synuclein Spread from Olfactory Bulb Causes Hyposmia, Anxiety, and Memory Loss in BAC‐SNCA Mice
    Norihito Uemura, Jun Ueda, Toru Yoshihara, Masashi Ikuno, Maiko T. Uemura, Hodaka Yamakado, Masahide Asano, John Q. Trojanowski, Ryosuke Takahashi
    Movement Disorders.2021; 36(9): 2036.     CrossRef
  • Hyposmia may predict development of freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease
    Jae Jung Lee, Jin Yong Hong, Jong Sam Baik
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2021; 128(6): 763.     CrossRef
  • Clinical and Dopamine Depletion Patterns in Hyposmia- and Dysautonomia-Dominant Parkinson’s Disease
    Han Soo Yoo, Sangwon Lee, Seong Ho Jeong, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H. Sohn, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2021; 11(4): 1703.     CrossRef
  • Is There a Shared Etiology of Olfactory Impairments in Normal Aging and Neurodegenerative Disease?
    Mahraz Parvand, Catharine H. Rankin, Lori Beason-Held
    Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.2020; 73(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Open questions on the nature of Parkinson’s disease: from triggers to spreading pathology
    Lei Mou, Wei Ding, Pedro Fernandez-Funez
    Journal of Medical Genetics.2020; 57(2): 73.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction and Motor Symptoms on Body Weight in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
    Carla Masala, Francesco Loy, Raffaella Piras, Anna Liscia, Laura Fadda, Alan Moat, Paolo Solla, Giovanni Defazio
    Brain Sciences.2020; 10(4): 218.     CrossRef
  • Insula and Amygdala Atrophy Are Associated With Functional Impairment in Subjects With Presbycusis
    Chama Belkhiria, Rodrigo C. Vergara, Simón San Martin, Alexis Leiva, Melissa Martinez, Bruno Marcenaro, Maricarmen Andrade, Paul H. Delano, Carolina Delgado
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Contribution of Five Functional Loci of Dopamine Metabolism-Related Genes to Parkinson’s Disease and Multiple System Atrophy in a Chinese Population
    Yongping Chen, Ruwei Ou, Lingyu Zhang, Xiaojing Gu, Xiaoqin Yuan, Qian-qian Wei, Bei Cao, Bi Zhao, Ying Wu, Huifang Shang
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Olfactory Dysfunction Predicts Disease Progression in Parkinson’s Disease: A Longitudinal Study
    Runcheng He, Yuwen Zhao, Yan He, Yangjie Zhou, Jinxia Yang, Xiaoting Zhou, Liping Zhu, Xun Zhou, Zhenhua Liu, Qian Xu, Qiying Sun, Jieqiong Tan, Xinxiang Yan, Beisha Tang, Jifeng Guo
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of apathy in treatment-naïve patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Hiroo Terashi, Yuki Ueta, Haruhisa Kato, Hiroshi Mitoma, Hitoshi Aizawa
    International Journal of Neuroscience.2019; 129(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • Olfaction and taste in Parkinson’s disease: the association with mild cognitive impairment and the single cognitive domain dysfunction
    Maria Paola Cecchini, Angela Federico, Alice Zanini, Elisa Mantovani, Carla Masala, Michele Tinazzi, Stefano Tamburin
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2019; 126(5): 585.     CrossRef
  • The oral microbiome of early stage Parkinson’s disease and its relationship with functional measures of motor and non-motor function
    Dragos Mihaila, Jordan Donegan, Sarah Barns, Daria LaRocca, Qian Du, Danny Zheng, Michael Vidal, Christopher Neville, Richard Uhlig, Frank A. Middleton, Brenda A Wilson
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(6): e0218252.     CrossRef
  • Hyposmia as a marker of (non-)motor disease severity in Parkinson’s disease
    Dareia S. Roos, Jos W. R. Twisk, Pieter G. H. M. Raijmakers, Richard L. Doty, Henk W. Berendse
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2019; 126(11): 1471.     CrossRef
  • Correlation among olfactory function, motors’ symptoms, cognitive impairment, apathy, and fatigue in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Carla Masala, Paolo Solla, A. Liscia, G. Defazio, L. Saba, A. Cannas, A. Cavazzana, T. Hummel, A. Haehner
    Journal of Neurology.2018; 265(8): 1764.     CrossRef
  • Olfactory Dysfunction as an Early Biomarker in Parkinson’s Disease
    Michelle E. Fullard, James F. Morley, John E. Duda
    Neuroscience Bulletin.2017; 33(5): 515.     CrossRef
  • Human behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson’s disease
    Tetsuya Asakawa, Huan Fang, Kenji Sugiyama, Takao Nozaki, Susumu Kobayashi, Zhen Hong, Katsuaki Suzuki, Norio Mori, Yilin Yang, Fei Hua, Guanghong Ding, Guoqiang Wen, Hiroki Namba, Ying Xia
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews.2016; 68: 741.     CrossRef

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders