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Original Articles
Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Adults With Premanifest and Manifest Huntington’s Disease: A Systematic Review
Sasha Browning, Stephanie Holland, Ian Wellwood, Belinda Bilney
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):307-320.   Published online August 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23111
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  • 94 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
To systematically review and critically evaluate literature on spatiotemporal gait deviations in individuals with premanifest and manifest Huntington’s Disease (HD) in comparison with healthy cohorts.
Methods
We conducted a systematic review, guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute’s Manual for Evidence Synthesis and pre-registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Eight electronic databases were searched. Studies comparing spatiotemporal footstep parameters in adults with premanifest and manifest HD to healthy controls were screened, included and critically appraised by independent reviewers. Data on spatiotemporal gait changes and variability were extracted and synthesised. Meta-analysis was performed on gait speed, cadence, stride length and stride length variability measures.
Results
We screened 2,721 studies, identified 1,245 studies and included 25 studies (total 1,088 participants). Sample sizes ranged from 14 to 96. Overall, the quality of the studies was assessed as good, but reporting of confounding factors was often unclear. Meta-analysis found spatiotemporal gait deviations in participants with HD compared to healthy controls, commencing in the premanifest stage. Individuals with premanifest HD walk significantly slower (-0.17 m/s; 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.22, -0.13]), with reduced cadence (-6.63 steps/min; 95% CI [-10.62, -2.65]) and stride length (-0.09 m; 95% CI [-0.13, -0.05]). Stride length variability was also increased in premanifest cohorts by 2.18% (95% CI [0.69, 3.68]), with these changes exacerbated in participants with manifest disease.
Conclusion
Findings suggest individuals with premanifest and manifest HD display significant spatiotemporal footstep deviations. Clinicians could monitor individuals in the premanifest stage of disease for gait changes to identify the onset of Huntington’s symptoms.
Association of Depression With Early Occurrence of Postural Instability in Parkinson’s Disease
Yun Su Hwang, Sungyang Jo, Kye Won Park, Seung Hyun Lee, Sangjin Lee, Sun Ju Chung
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(1):68-78.   Published online December 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22091
  • 2,393 View
  • 139 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Depression in Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects the quality of life of patients. Postural instability and gait disturbance are associated with the severity and prognosis of PD. We investigated the association of depression with axial involvement in early-stage PD patients.
Methods
This study involved 95 PD patients unexposed to antiparkinsonian drugs. After a baseline assessment for depression, the subjects were divided into a depressed PD group and a nondepressed PD group. Analyses were conducted to identify an association of depression at baseline with the following outcome variables: the progression to Hoehn and Yahr scale (H-Y) stage 3, the occurrence of freezing of gait (FOG), levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and wearing-off. The follow-up period was 53.40 ± 16.79 months from baseline.
Results
Kaplan–Meier survival curves for H-Y stage 3 and FOG showed more prominent progression to H-Y stage 3 and occurrences of FOG in the depressed PD group than in the nondepressed PD group (log-rank p = 0.025 and 0.003, respectively). Depression in drug-naïve, early-stage PD patients showed a significant association with the progression to H-Y stage 3 (hazard ratio = 2.55; 95% confidence interval = 1.32–4.93; p = 0.005), as analyzed by Cox regression analyses. In contrast, the occurrence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia and wearing-off did not differ between the two groups (log-rank p = 0.903 and 0.351, respectively).
Conclusion
Depression in drug-naïve, early-stage PD patients is associated with an earlier occurrence of postural instability. This suggests shared nondopaminergic pathogenic mechanisms and potentially enables the prediction of early development of postural instability.
Association Between Gait and Dysautonomia in Patients With De Novo Parkinson’s Disease: Forward Gait Versus Backward Gait
Seon-Min Lee, Mina Lee, Eun Ji Lee, Rae On Kim, Yongduk Kim, Kyum-Yil Kwon
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(1):59-67.   Published online September 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22045
  • 2,949 View
  • 237 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Studies on gait and autonomic dysfunction have been insufficient so far, particularly de novo Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of this study was to identify the association between gait dynamics and autonomic dysfunction in patients with de novo PD.
Methods
A total 38 patients with de novo PD were retrospectively included in this study. Details of patients’ dysautonomia were assessed using the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease-Autonomic Dysfunction (SCOPA-AUT). For assessment of gait, a computerized gait analysis was performed using the GAITRite system for forward gait and backward gait. High SCOPA-AUT score (PD-HSAS) group and low SCOPA-AUT score (PD-LSAS) group were identified according to their SCOPA-AUT scores.
Results
Nineteen (50%) patients with high SCOPA-AUT scores above median value (12.5) were assigned into the PD-HSAS group and others were assigned to the PD-LSAS group. Compared with the PD-LSAS group, the PD-HSAS group exhibited slower gait, shorter stride, decreased cadence, increased double support phase, decreased swing phase, and increased variability in swing time. Total SCOPA-AUT score showed significantly positive correlations with gait variability and instability but a negative correlation with gait hypokinesia. In subdomain analysis, urinary dysautonomia was highly associated with impairment of gait dynamics. All significant results were found to be more remarkable in backward gait than in forward gait.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that alteration in gait dynamics, especially backward gait, is highly associated with autonomic dysfunction in patients with de novo PD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between autonomic dysfunction with motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease
    Yi Qin, De-Tao Meng, Zhao-Hui Jin, Wen-Jun Du, Bo-Yan Fang
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2024; 131(4): 323.     CrossRef
  • Determinants of Dual-task Gait Speed in Older Adults with and without Parkinson’s Disease
    André Ivaniski-Mello, Vivian Torres Müller, Lucas de Liz Alves, Marcela Zimmermann Casal, Aline Nogueira Haas, Luca Correale, Ana Carolina Kanitz, Valéria Feijó Martins, Andréa Kruger Gonçalves, Flávia Gomes Martinez, Leonardo Alexandre Peyré-Tartaruga
    International Journal of Sports Medicine.2023; 44(10): 744.     CrossRef
Review Article
The Supplementary Motor Complex in Parkinson’s Disease
Shervin Rahimpour, Shashank Rajkumar, Mark Hallett
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(1):21-32.   Published online November 25, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21075
  • 6,039 View
  • 382 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although the basal ganglia is traditionally the primary brain region implicated in this disease process, this limited view ignores the roles of the cortex and cerebellum that are networked with the basal ganglia to support motor and cognitive functions. In particular, recent research has highlighted dysfunction in the supplementary motor complex (SMC) in patients with PD. Using the PubMed and Google Scholar search engines, we identified research articles using keywords pertaining to the involvement of the SMC in action sequencing impairments, temporal processing disturbances, and gait impairment in patients with PD. A review of abstracts and full-text articles was used to identify relevant articles. In this review of 63 articles, we focus on the role of the SMC in PD, highlighting anatomical and functional data to create new perspectives in understanding clinical symptoms and, potentially, new therapeutic targets. The SMC has a nuanced role in the pathophysiology of PD, with both hypo- and hyperactivation associated with various symptoms. Further studies using more standardized patient populations and functional tasks are needed to more clearly elucidate the role of this region in the pathophysiology and treatment of PD.

Citations

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  • Libet’s legacy: A primer to the neuroscience of volition
    Tomáš Dominik, Alfred Mele, Aaron Schurger, Uri Maoz
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews.2024; 157: 105503.     CrossRef
  • Neural correlates of fine motor grasping skills: Longitudinal insights into motor cortex activation using fNIRS
    Xiaoli Li, Minxia Jin, Nan Zhang, Wei Hongman, LianHui Fu, Qi Qi
    Brain and Behavior.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Affection of Motor Network Regions by Tau Pathology Across the Alzheimer's Disease Spectrum
    Gérard N. Bischof, Elena Jaeger, Kathrin Giehl, Merle C. Hönig, Peter H. Weiss, Alexander Drzezga
    eneuro.2024; 11(1): ENEURO.0242-23.2023.     CrossRef
  • Parkinson’s Disease Risk Variant rs9638616 is Non-Specifically Associated with Altered Brain Structure and Function
    Thomas Welton, Thomas Wei Jun Teo, Ling Ling Chan, Eng-King Tan, Louis Chew Seng Tan
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Sensorimotor network connectivity correlates with motor improvement after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease
    Shumei Chi, Xinrui Wen, Yang Yu, Guanjun Wang, Jie Zhang, Chuang Xue, Xiaoying Zhang, Zheng Wang, Meiduo Gesang, Jiefang Chen, Sha Wu, Man Jin, Jian Liu, Benyan Luo
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2023; 106: 105218.     CrossRef
  • Impaired topological properties of cortical morphological brain networks correlate with motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease
    Su Yan, Jun Lu, Yuanhao Li, Tian Tian, Yiran Zhou, Hongquan Zhu, Yuanyuan Qin, Wenzhen Zhu
    Journal of Neuroradiology.2023; : 101155.     CrossRef
  • A new model for freedom of movement using connectomic analysis
    Diego Alonzo Rodríguez-Méndez, Daniel San-Juan, Mark Hallett, Chris G. Antonopoulos, Erick López-Reynoso, Ricardo Lara-Ramírez
    PeerJ.2022; 10: e13602.     CrossRef
  • Cortical and subcortical morphological alterations in motor subtypes of Parkinson’s disease
    Jianyu Li, Yuanchao Zhang, Zitong Huang, Yihan Jiang, Zhanbing Ren, Daihong Liu, Jiuquan Zhang, Roberta La Piana, Yifan Chen
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Brief communication
Dance Intervention Using the Feldenkrais Method Improves Motor, and Non-Motor Symptoms and Gait in Parkinson’s Disease: A 12-Month Study
Sung Hoon Kang, Jinhee Kim, Ilsoo Kim, Young Ae Moon, Sojung Park, Seong-Beom Koh
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(1):53-57.   Published online November 3, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21086
  • 4,371 View
  • 381 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of dancing (using the Feldenkrais method) on motor and non-motor symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and objective parameters of gait at the time of intervention and at the end of the 1-year study period.
Methods
This was a single-arm study in which 12 subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) received dance intervention during a 6-month period. Objective motor scales, gait analysis, and questionnaires on non-motor symptoms were evaluated at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months.
Results
Dance intervention decreased motor scale (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Tinetti scale) scores and improved gait disturbance (gait velocity and step length) without increasing levodopa equivalent dose. Furthermore, dancing decreased non-motor scale (Non-Motor Symptoms Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) scores and improved QoL.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that dance intervention can be a complementary management method for PD patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Mild cognitive impairment is associated with poor gait performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Sung Hoon Kang, Jinhee Kim, Jungyeun Lee, Seong-Beom Koh
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Case Report
Focused Vibrotactile Stimulation with Cueing Effect on Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease: Two Case Reports
Xiu Sheng Tan, Floyd Pierres, Alex Dallman-Porter, William Hardie-Brown, Kyum-Yil Kwon
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(3):236-238.   Published online September 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21076
  • 7,205 View
  • 177 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common occurrence in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) that leads to significant limitations in mobility and increases risk of falls. Focused vibrotactile stimulation and cueing are two methods used to alleviate motor symptoms, including FOG, in patients with PD. While effective on their own, the effect of combining both focused vibrotactile stimulation and cueing has yet to be investigated. Two patients, both with a history of PD, suffered from frequent FOG episodes that failed to respond adequately to medication. A novel vibrotactile stimulation device that delivered rhythmic kinesthetic stimuli onto the sternum successfully reduced FOG episodes in both patients and drastically improved their mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go test. We found that a combination of focused vibrotactile stimulation and cueing was effective in reducing FOG episodes in two patients with PD. Further well-designed prospective studies are needed to confirm our observations.

Citations

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  • Therapeutic Devices for Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease: Current Progress and a Systematic Review of Recent Randomized Controlled Trials
    Joji Fujikawa, Ryoma Morigaki, Nobuaki Yamamoto, Teruo Oda, Hiroshi Nakanishi, Yuishin Izumi, Yasushi Takagi
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Exploring a New Cueing Device in People Who Experience Freezing of Gait: Acceptance of a Study Design
    Agnes Wilhelm, Tanja Riedl, Christian Paumann, Jessie Janssen, Hélio Teive
    Parkinson's Disease.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Technological support for people with Parkinson’s disease: a narrative review
    Tommaso Di Libero, Elisa Langiano, Chiara Carissimo, Maria Ferrara, Pierluigi Diotaiuti, Angelo Rodio
    Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics.2022; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Future Therapeutic Strategies for Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease
    Cathy K. Cui, Simon J. G. Lewis
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
The Four Square Step Test for Assessing Cognitively Demanding Dynamic Balance in Parkinson’s Disease Patients
Jinhee Kim, Ilsoo Kim, Ye Eun Kim, Seong-Beom Koh
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(3):208-213.   Published online May 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20146
  • 4,806 View
  • 161 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
The Four Square Step Test (FSST) is a tool that assesses dynamic balance during obstacle step-over. To date, few studies have used the FSST to measure balance in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study aimed to verify that patients with PD, even at the de novo early stage, take more time to perform the FSST and identify which factors, cognitive status or cardinal motor symptoms, are related most to FSST scores.
Methods
Thirty-five newly diagnosed drug-naïve patients with PD and 17 controls completed the FSST. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage, spatiotemporal gait parameters, and neuropsychological test battery were also assessed in the PD group.
Results
Mean FSST performance time was 8.20 ± 1.61 seconds in patients with PD, which was significantly more than the control group (7.13 ± 1.10 seconds, p = 0.018). UPDRS part III total score and H&Y stage were not significantly associated with FSST, but among the UPDRS subscores, only the postural instability/gait disturbance subscore showed a significant association. Regarding the association between FSST and cognition, the Trail Making Test-B and the Color Word Stroop Test showed strongly inverse correlations with FSST (rho = -0.598 and -0.590, respectively). With respect to gait parameters, double support time was significantly associated with FSST score (rho = 0.342, p = 0.044); however, other parameters, including velocity and step length, were not associated with the FSST.
Conclusion
The FSST can be used in the clinic to assess dynamic balance with cognitive demands even in the early stages of PD.

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  • Impact of mobile phone usage on dynamic postural control among South Indian college students
    S. Dhanusia, S. Santhana Lakshmi, Ajith Kumar, R. Prabhu, Vignesh Srinivasan, Prathap Suganthirababu, Priyadharshini Kumar, A. Kumaresan, Surya Vishnuram, Jagatheesan Alagesan, Rajkumar Krishnan Vasanthi
    Work.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • A Computer Vision-Based System to Help Health Professionals to Apply Tests for Fall Risk Assessment
    Jesús Damián Blasco-García, Gabriel García-López, Marta Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan Antonio López-Riquelme, Jorge Juan Feliu-Batlle, Nieves Pavón-Pulido, María-Trinidad Herrero
    Sensors.2024; 24(6): 2015.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Carol B. Lewis Distinguished Lecture Address to the APTA Geriatrics Membership Combined Sections Meeting, February 23, 2023 Key Words & Challenges: Defining Our Role in Caring for Older Adults
    Michelle M. Lusardi
    Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy.2023; 46(2): 93.     CrossRef
  • The relationship between visual function and physical performance in the Study of Muscle, Mobility and Aging (SOMMA)
    Atalie C. Thompson, Eileen Johnson, Michael E. Miller, Jeff D. Williamson, Anne B. Newman, Steve Cummings, Peggy Cawthon, Stephen B. Kritchevsky, Eric R. Anson
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(9): e0292079.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between parental history of dementia, motor-cognitive and executive function performance in African American women
    Allison A. Bay, Nicole Schindler, Whitney Wharton, Hayley Silverstein, Liang Ni, Todd A. Prusin, Madeleine E. Hackney
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Case Report
Myoclonus-Ataxia Syndrome Associated with COVID-19
Kuldeep Shetty, Atul Manchakrao Jadhav, Ranjith Jayanthakumar, Seema Jamwal, Tejaswini Shanubhogue, Mallepalli Prabhakar Reddy, Gopal Krishna Dash, Radhika Manohar, Vivek Jacob Philip, Vikram Huded
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(2):153-156.   Published online April 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20106
  • 7,649 View
  • 188 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have increasingly been reported since the onset of the pandemic. Herein, we report a relatively new presentation. A patient in the convalescence period following a febrile illness with lower respiratory tract infection (fever, myalgia, nonproductive cough) presented with generalized disabling myoclonus, which is phenotypically suggestive of brainstem origin, along with additional truncal cerebellar ataxia. His neurology work-ups, such as brain MRI, electroencephalography, serum autoimmune and paraneoplastic antibody testing, were normal. His CT chest scan revealed right lower lung infiltrates, and serological and other laboratory testing did not show evidence of active infection. COVID-19 titers turned out to be strongly positive, suggestive of post-COVID-19 lung sequelae. He responded partially to antimyoclonic drugs and fully to a course of steroids, suggesting a para- or postinfectious immune-mediated pathophysiology. Myoclonusataxia syndrome appears to be a neurological manifestation of COVID-19 infection, and knowledge regarding this phenomenon should be increased among clinicians for better patient care in a pandemic situation.

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  • Opsoclonus Myoclonus Ataxia Syndrome Due to SARS-CoV-2
    Josef Finsterer, Fulvio A. Scorza
    Neuro-Ophthalmology.2023; 47(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Myoclonus in patients with COVID‐19: Findings of autoantibodies against brain structures in cerebrospinal fluid
    Isa Lindqvist, Janet L. Cunningham, Jan Mulder, Amalia Feresiadou, Elham Rostami, Johan Virhammar, Eva Kumlien
    European Journal of Neurology.2023; 30(10): 3142.     CrossRef
  • Temporal Changes in Brain Perfusion in a Patient with Myoclonus and Ataxia Syndrome Associated with COVID-19
    Kenta Osawa, Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Akiyuki Uzawa, Shigeki Hirano, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Masahiko Nezu, Nobuyuki Araki, Hiroki Kano, Satoshi Kuwabara
    Internal Medicine.2022; 61(7): 1071.     CrossRef
  • Post‐infectious cerebellar ataxia following COVID‐19 in a patient with epilepsy
    Sidhartha Chattopadhyay, Judhajit Sengupta, Sagar Basu
    Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology.2022; 13(4): 323.     CrossRef
  • Persistent neurological manifestations in long COVID-19 syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Vincent Ongko Wijaya, Abraham Al Jody, Patrick Nalla Nunsio, Ranbebasa Bijak Buana
    Journal of Infection and Public Health.2022; 15(8): 856.     CrossRef
  • Anti-neuronal antibodies against brainstem antigens are associated with COVID-19
    Guglielmo Lucchese, Antje Vogelgesang, Fabian Boesl, Dina Raafat, Silva Holtfreter, Barbara M. Bröker, Angela Stufano, Robert Fleischmann, Harald Prüss, Christiana Franke, Agnes Flöel
    eBioMedicine.2022; 83: 104211.     CrossRef
  • Post–COVID‐19 Myoclonus–Ataxia Syndrome Responsive to Intravenous Immunoglobulins
    Massimiliano Godani, Alessandro Beronio, Giuseppe Lanza
    Movement Disorders Clinical Practice.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Anti-GAD associated post-infectious cerebellitis after COVID-19 infection
    Ahmed Serkan Emekli, Asuman Parlak, Nejla Yılmaz Göcen, Murat Kürtüncü
    Neurological Sciences.2021; 42(10): 3995.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Long-term Effects of Bilateral Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Postural Instability and Gait Difficulty in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Hae-Won Shin, Mi Sun Kim, Sung Reul Kim, Sang Ryong Jeon, Sun Ju Chung
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(2):127-132.   Published online May 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.19081
  • 6,083 View
  • 210 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
The long-term effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the longterm effects of STN-DBS surgery on PIGD symptoms in patients with advanced-stage PD. Methods This study included 49 consecutively included patients with PD who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores and subscores for PIGD were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, and 5 years postoperatively. The PIGD subscore was divided into PIGD-motor and PIGD-activities of daily living (ADL) scores according to parts III and II of the UPDRS, respectively. Results The PIGD-motor and PIGD-ADL scores at the “medication-off” state improved at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Overall, the UPDRS III and II scores at “medication-off” improved at 5 years. The UPDRS IV score also significantly improved and the levodopa equivalent daily dosage decreased at all follow-ups. Finally, the PIGD-motor score at baseline was able to predict long-term improvement in the PIGD-motor score at the 5-year follow-up. Conclusion The STN-DBS has both short- and long-term effects on PIGD, as well as overall motor function, in patients with advanced PD. The degree of PIGD at the preoperative evaluation can be used to predict long-term outcomes after STN-DBS surgery.

Citations

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  • Effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation using different frequency programming paradigms on axial symptoms in advanced Parkinson’s disease
    Yifeng Cheng, Guangrui Zhao, Lei Chen, Deqiu Cui, Chunjuan Wang, Keke Feng, Shaoya Yin
    Acta Neurochirurgica.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Long-term motor outcomes of deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna in Parkinson's disease patients: Five-year follow-up
    Yun Su Hwang, Sungyang Jo, Seung Hyun Lee, Nayoung Kim, Mi-Sun Kim, Sang Ryong Jeon, Sun Ju Chung
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2023; 444: 120484.     CrossRef
  • Smartwatch gait coordination index: New measure for human gait utilizing smartwatch sensor
    Sumin Han, Rob Paul
    Medicine.2023; 102(12): e33267.     CrossRef
  • WITHDRAWN: Laterality and frequency settings of subthalamic nucleus DBS for Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
    Rajiv Dharnipragada, Lalitha S. Denduluri, Anant Naik, Mario Bertogliat, Matthew Awad, Salman Ikramuddin, Michael C. Park
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2023; : 105455.     CrossRef
  • Frequency settings of subthalamic nucleus DBS for Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
    Rajiv Dharnipragada, Lalitha S. Denduluri, Anant Naik, Mario Bertogliat, Matthew Awad, Salman Ikramuddin, Michael C. Park
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2023; 116: 105809.     CrossRef
  • Unlocking potential: low frequency subthalamic nucleus stimulation enhances executive function in Parkinson’s disease patients with postural instability/gait disturbance
    Guofan Qin, Hutao Xie, Lin Shi, Baotian Zhao, Yifei Gan, Zixiao Yin, Yichen Xu, Xin Zhang, Yaojing Chen, Yin Jiang, Quan Zhang, Jianguo Zhang
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Role of Microelectrode Recording in Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery for Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    R. Saman Vinke, Martin Geerlings, Ashok K. Selvaraj, Dejan Georgiev, Bastiaan R. Bloem, Rianne A.J. Esselink, Ronald H.M.A. Bartels
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2022; 12(7): 2059.     CrossRef
  • Axial impairment and falls in Parkinson’s disease: 15 years of subthalamic deep brain stimulation
    Alessandro Zampogna, Francesco Cavallieri, Francesco Bove, Antonio Suppa, Anna Castrioto, Sara Meoni, Pierre Pélissier, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Eugénie Lhommée, Andrea Kistner, Stephan Chabardès, Eric Seigneuret, Valerie Fraix, Elena Moro
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Heterogeneous Patterns of Striatal Dopamine Loss in Patients with Young- versus Old-Onset Parkinson’s Disease: Impact on Clinical Features
Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Yang Hyun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2019;12(2):113-119.   Published online May 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.18064
  • 7,651 View
  • 159 Download
  • 25 Web of Science
  • 27 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Ample evidence has suggested that age at onset of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with heterogeneous clinical features in individuals. We hypothesized that this may be attributed to different patterns of nigrostriatal dopamine loss.
Methods
A total of 205 consecutive patients with de novo PD who underwent 18F-FP-CIT PET scans (mean follow-up duration, 6.31 years) were divided into three tertile groups according to their age at onset of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability was compared between the old- (n = 73) and young-onset (n = 66) groups. In addition, the risk of developing freezing of gait (FOG) and longitudinal requirements for dopaminergic medications were examined.
Results
The old-onset PD group (mean age at onset, 72.66 years) exhibited more severe parkinsonian motor signs than the young-onset group (52.58 years), despite comparable DAT availability in the posterior putamen; moreover, the old-onset group exhibited more severely decreased DAT availability in the caudate than the young-onset group. A Cox regression model revealed that the old-onset PD group had a higher risk for developing FOG than the young-onset group [hazard ratio 2.523, 95% confidence interval (1.239–5.140)]. The old-onset group required higher doses of dopaminergic medications for symptom control than the young-onset group over time.
Conclusion
The present study demonstrated that the old-onset PD group exhibited more severe dopamine loss in the caudate and were more likely to develop gait freezing, suggesting that age at onset may be one of the major determinants of the pattern of striatal dopamine depletion and progression of gait disturbance in PD.

Citations

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  • The Molecular Pathway of p75 Neurotrophin Receptor (p75NTR) in Parkinson’s Disease: The Way of New Inroads
    Naif H. Ali, Hayder M. Al-kuraishy, Ali I. Al-Gareeb, Saud A. Alnaaim, Hebatallah M. Saad, Gaber El-Saber Batiha
    Molecular Neurobiology.2024; 61(5): 2469.     CrossRef
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Review Article
The Relationship between Saccades and Locomotion
Anshul Srivastava, Omar F. Ahmad, Christopher Pham Pacia, Mark Hallett, Codrin Lungu
J Mov Disord. 2018;11(3):93-106.   Published online August 9, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.18018
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Human locomotion involves a complex interplay among multiple brain regions and depends on constant feedback from the visual system. We summarize here the current understanding of the relationship among fixations, saccades, and gait as observed in studies sampling eye movements during locomotion, through a review of the literature and a synthesis of the relevant knowledge on the topic. A significant overlap in locomotor and saccadic neural circuitry exists that may support this relationship. Several animal studies have identified potential integration nodes between these overlapping circuitries. Behavioral studies that explored the relationship of saccadic and gait-related impairments in normal conditions and in various disease states are also discussed. Eye movements and locomotion share many underlying neural circuits, and further studies can leverage this interplay for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

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Original Articles
Validity and Reliability Study of the Korean Tinetti Mobility Test for Parkinson’s Disease
Jinse Park, Seong-Beom Koh, Hee Jin Kim, Eungseok Oh, Joong-Seok Kim, Ji Young Yun, Do-Young Kwon, Younsoo Kim, Ji Seon Kim, Kyum-Yil Kwon, Jeong-Ho Park, Jinyoung Youn, Wooyoung Jang
J Mov Disord. 2018;11(1):24-29.   Published online January 23, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.17058
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Postural instability and gait disturbance are the cardinal symptoms associated with falling among patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The Tinetti mobility test (TMT) is a well-established measurement tool used to predict falls among elderly people. However, the TMT has not been established or widely used among PD patients in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the TMT for PD patients.
Methods
Twenty-four patients diagnosed with PD were enrolled in this study. For the interrater reliability test, thirteen clinicians scored the TMT after watching a video clip. We also used the test-retest method to determine intrarater reliability. For concurrent validation, the unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale, Hoehn and Yahr staging, Berg Balance Scale, Timed-Up and Go test, 10-m walk test, and gait analysis by three-dimensional motion capture were also used. We analyzed receiver operating characteristic curve to predict falling.
Results
The interrater reliability and intrarater reliability of the Korean Tinetti balance scale were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The interrater reliability and intra-rater reliability of the Korean Tinetti gait scale were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. The Korean TMT scores were significantly correlated with the other clinical scales and three-dimensional motion capture. The cutoff values for predicting falling were 14 points (balance subscale) and 10 points (gait subscale).
Conclusion
We found that the Korean version of the TMT showed excellent validity and reliability for gait and balance and had high sensitivity and specificity for predicting falls among patients with PD.

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Quantitative Gait Analysis in Patients with Huntington’s Disease
Seon Jong Pyo, Hanjun Kim, Il Soo Kim, Young-Min Park, Mi-Jung Kim, Hye Mi Lee, Seong-Beom Koh
J Mov Disord. 2017;10(3):140-144.   Published online August 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.17041
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Gait disturbance is the main factor contributing to a negative impact on quality of life in patients with Huntington’s disease (HD). Understanding gait features in patients with HD is essential for planning a successful gait strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate temporospatial gait parameters in patients with HD compared with healthy controls.
Methods
We investigated 7 patients with HD. Diagnosis was confirmed by genetic analysis, and patients were evaluated with the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS). Gait features were assessed with a gait analyzer. We compared the results of patients with HD to those of 7 age- and sex-matched normal controls.
Results
Step length and stride length were decreased and base of support was increased in the HD group compared to the control group. In addition, coefficients of variability for step and stride length were increased in the HD group. The HD group showed slower walking velocity, an increased stance/swing phase in the gait cycle and a decreased proportion of single support time compared to the control group. Cadence did not differ significantly between groups. Among the UHDRS subscores, total motor score and total behavior score were positively correlated with step length, and total behavior score was positively correlated with walking velocity in patients with HD.
Conclusion
Increased variability in step and stride length, slower walking velocity, increased stance phase, and decreased swing phase and single support time with preserved cadence suggest that HD gait patterns are slow, ataxic and ineffective. This study suggests that quantitative gait analysis is needed to assess gait problems in HD.

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Case Report
Treatment of Gait Ignition Failure with Ropinirole
Alexis N. Cohen-Oram, Jonathan T. Stewart, Kim Bero, Michael W. Hoffmann
J Mov Disord. 2014;7(2):95-98.   Published online October 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.14014
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Gait ignition failure (GIF) is a syndrome characterized by hesitation or inability to initiate gait from a static position. It may occur in a variety of conditions, including normal pressure hydrocephalus, subcortical vascular disease, parkinsonian syndromes and a variety of focal lesions. Previous information on the treatment of GIF has been primarily anecdotal, but there have been a few reports of response to dopamine agonists. We report a 63-year-old man with anoxic encephalopathy who developed GIF nine years after the initial anoxic insult. The patient’s GIF responded robustly, albeit transiently, to ropinirole. MRI was unrevealing, but a positron emission tomography scan showed hypometabolism in the deep frontal ACA/MCA watershed area; this may have disconnected the basal ganglia from the motor cortex and/or interrupted dopaminergic mesocortical transmission. Our understanding of the pathophysiology and the treatment of GIF remains limited, but there may be at least a limited therapeutic role for dopamine agonists.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Gait Ignition Failure in JNPL3 Human Tau-mutant Mice
    HoChung Jang, Jung Hwa Ryu, Kyung Min Shin, Na-young Seo, Gyu Hyun Kim, Yang Hoon Huh, Ae Nim Pae, Kea Joo Lee
    Experimental Neurobiology.2019; 28(3): 404.     CrossRef
Original Article
Psychogenic Gait Disorders after Mass School Vaccination of Influenza A
Jung Ho Ryu, Jong Sam Baik
J Mov Disord. 2010;3(1):15-17.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.10004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) after war or mass vaccination was reported and well known disease entity already. However, we have seldom been met those patients because we don’t have any chance to experience of those events. Recently, influenza A (H1N1) spreads around world, and many countries have a program of mass vaccination of H1N1. Although PMD in adult is well characterized, childhood-onset PMD has not been extensively studied.

Case Reports

We present four children of psychogenic gait disorders (PGDs) after mass school vaccination of H1N1. They had fluctuating weakness and their prognosis was good. We confirmed all patients as PGD by placebo.

Conclusions

Our four cases have two common characteristics. One is that all were young and their prognosis was good. And the other is that all were induced their abnormal gait symptoms after mass school vaccination. We observed that mass PMD has a different characteristics comparing to personal PMD, and PMD in children is differ from adult onset PMD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diagnosing Common Movement Disorders in Children
    Jennifer A. O’Malley
    CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology.2022; 28(5): 1476.     CrossRef
  • Immunization stress-related responses: Implications for vaccination hesitancy and vaccination processes during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Steven Taylor, Gordon J.G. Asmundson
    Journal of Anxiety Disorders.2021; 84: 102489.     CrossRef
  • Functional Neurological Disorder after Vaccination: A Balanced Approach Informed by History
    Stefanie C Linden, Alan J Carson, Simon Wessely
    Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.2021; 51(4): 330.     CrossRef
  • Psychogenic Gait Disorder Complicating Recovery after Concussion: A Case Series
    Scott I. Otallah
    Pediatric Neurology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Psychogenic movement disorders in children and adolescents: an update
    Susan R. Harris
    European Journal of Pediatrics.2019; 178(4): 581.     CrossRef

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