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Original Article
Retinal Thinning as a Marker of Disease Severity in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Yueting Chen, Haotian Wang, Bo Wang, Wenbo Li, Panpan Ye, Wen Xu, Peng Liu, Xinhui Chen, Zhidong Cen, Zhiyuan Ouyang, Sheng Wu, Xiaofeng Dou, Yi Liao, Hong Zhang, Mei Tian, Wei Luo
J Mov Disord. 2024;17(1):55-63.   Published online September 26, 2023
  • 1,456 View
  • 183 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) involves a variety of visual symptoms that are thought to be partially caused by structural abnormalities of the retina. However, the relationship between retinal structural changes, disease severity, and intracranial alterations remains unknown. We investigated distinct retinal thinning patterns and their relationship with clinical severity and intracranial alterations in a PSP cohort.
We enrolled 19 patients with PSP (38 eyes) and 20 age-matched healthy controls (40 eyes). All of the participants underwent peripapillary and macular optical coherence tomography. Brain 11C-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane (11C-CFT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography imaging were also performed in patients with PSP. We investigated the association between retinal thickness changes and clinical features, striatal dopamine transporter availability, and cerebral glucose metabolism.
The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and macula were significantly thinner in patients with PSP than in controls. The thickness of the superior sector of the pRNFL demonstrated a significant negative relationship with the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III and Hoehn and Yahr staging scale scores. A significant negative correlation was found between outer inferior macular thickness and disease duration. Outer temporal macular thickness was positively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. In PSP, lower outer temporal macular thickness was also positively correlated with decreased dopamine transporter binding in the caudate.
The pRNFL and macular thinning may be candidate markers for monitoring disease severity. Additionally, macular thinning may be an in vivo indicator of nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell degeneration in PSP patients.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Optical Coherence Tomography as a Biomarker in the Differential Diagnosis between Parkinson’s Disease and Atypical Parkinsonian Syndromes: A Narrative Review
    Stella Karatzetzou, Dimitrios Parisis, Serafeim Ioannidis, Theodora Afrantou, Panagiotis Ioannidis
    Applied Sciences.2024; 14(6): 2491.     CrossRef
Case Report
Nearly Abolished Dopamine Transporter Uptake in a Patient With a Novel FBXO7 Mutation
Eun Young Kim, Seon Young Kim, Youngduk Seo, Chaewon Shin
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(3):269-272.   Published online July 26, 2022
  • 2,428 View
  • 92 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Mutations in the F-box only protein 7 (FBXO7) gene are the cause of autosomal recessive parkinsonian-pyramidal syndrome. Herein, we report a patient with a novel FBXO7 mutation with a unique clinical presentation. A 43-year-old male visited our hospital with complaints of progressing gait disturbance since a generalized tonic clonic seizure. There were no past neurological symptoms or familial disorders. Neurological examination revealed bradykinesia, masked face, stooped posture, parkinsonian gait, and postural instability. The bilateral uptake by dopamine transporters was nearly abolished, as determined by N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)- 2β-carbon ethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography (18F-FP-CIT PET). Next-generation sequencing revealed a heterozygous c.1066_1069delTCTG (p.Ser356ArgfsTer56) frameshift variant and a heterozygous c.80G>A (p.Arg27His) missense variant of the FBXO7 gene. The patient’s specific clinical features, medication-refractory parkinsonism and seizures further broaden the spectrum of FBXO7 mutations. The nearly abolished dopamine transporter uptake identified by 18F-FP-CIT PET is frequently found in patients with FBXO7 mutations, which is different from the usual rostrocaudal gradient that is observed in patients with Parkinson’s disease.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Imaging Procedure and Clinical Studies of [18F]FP-CIT PET
    Changhwan Sung, Seung Jun Oh, Jae Seung Kim
    Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Study of an FBXO7 patient mutation reveals Fbxo7 and PI31 co‐regulate proteasomes and mitochondria
    Sara Al Rawi, Lorna Simpson, Guðrún Agnarsdóttir, Neil Q. McDonald, Veronika Chernuha, Orly Elpeleg, Massimo Zeviani, Roger A. Barker, Ronen Spiegel, Heike Laman
    The FEBS Journal.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The characteristics of FBXO7 and its role in human diseases
    Yeling Zhong, Jinyun Li, Meng Ye, Xiaofeng Jin
    Gene.2023; 851: 146972.     CrossRef
Original Article
Gender Differences in Age-Related Striatal Dopamine Depletion in Parkinson’s Disease
Jae Jung Lee, Jee Hyun Ham, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(3):130-135.   Published online September 10, 2015
  • 22,980 View
  • 123 Download
  • 28 Web of Science
  • 28 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective Gender differences are a well-known clinical characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In-vivo imaging studies demonstrated that women have greater striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) activity than do men, both in the normal population and in PD patients. We hypothesize that women exhibit more rapid aging-related striatal DAT reduction than do men, as the potential neuroprotective effect of estrogen wanes with age.
Methods This study included 307 de novo PD patients (152 men and 155 women) who underwent DAT scans for an initial diagnostic work-up. Gender differences in age-related DAT decline were assessed in striatal sub-regions using linear regression analysis.
Results Female patients exhibited greater DAT activity compared with male patients in all striatal sub-regions. The linear regression analysis revealed that age-related DAT decline was greater in the anterior and posterior caudate, and the anterior putamen in women compared with men; we did not observe this difference in other sub-regions.
Conclusions This study demonstrated the presence of gender differences in age-related DAT decline in striatal sub-regions, particularly in the antero-dorsal striatum, in patients with PD, presumably due to aging-related decrease in estrogen. Because this difference was not observed in the sensorimotor striatum, this finding also suggests that women may not have a greater capacity to tolerate PD pathogenesis than do men.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impact of frailty and sex-related differences on postural control and gait in older adults with Parkinson's Disease
    Mathieu Dallaire, Alexandra Houde-Thibeault, Jérôme Bouchard-Tremblay, Enafa Anais Wotto, Sharlène Côté, Claudia Santos Oliveira, Suzy Ngomo, Rubens A. da Silva
    Experimental Gerontology.2024; 186: 112360.     CrossRef
  • Dysphagia Pattern in Early to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease Caused by Abnormal Pharyngeal Kinematic Function
    Ping Wang, Xinhui Chen, Miao Chen, Leilei Gao, Bing Xiong, Changmeng Ji, Qian Shen, Yuanqing Shen, Sheng Wu, Yanhong Pan, Jinhui Li, Bo Wang, Wei Luo
    Dysphagia.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cut-Off Value of Voluntary Peak Cough Flow in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Its Association with Severe Dysphagia: A Retrospective Pilot Study
    Kyeong-Woo Lee, Sang-Beom Kim, Jong-Hwa Lee, Seong-Woo Kim
    Medicina.2023; 59(5): 921.     CrossRef
  • The impact of COVID-19 on patients with Parkinson disease
    Esma KOBAK TUR, Buse Çağla ARI
    Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine.2023; 6(4): 815.     CrossRef
  • Worldwide trends in mortality related to Parkinson's disease in the period of 1994–2019: Analysis of vital registration data from the WHO Mortality Database
    Ioannis C. Lampropoulos, Foteini Malli, Olga Sinani, Konstantinos I. Gourgoulianis, Georgia Xiromerisiou
    Frontiers in Neurology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in Parkinson's Disease: An emerging health question
    Luiz Philipe de Souza Ferreira, Rafael André da Silva, Matheus Marques Mesquita da Costa, Vinicius Moraes de Paiva Roda, Santiago Vizcaino, Nilma R.L.L. Janisset, Renata Ramos Vieira, José Marcos Sanches, José Maria Soares Junior, Manuel de Jesus Simões
    Clinics.2022; 77: 100121.     CrossRef
  • Parkinson's disease in women: Mechanisms underlying sex differences
    Bhupesh Vaidya, Kritika Dhamija, Priyanka Guru, Shyam Sunder Sharma
    European Journal of Pharmacology.2021; 895: 173862.     CrossRef
  • Temporalis Muscle Thickness as an Indicator of Sarcopenia Is Associated With Long-term Motor Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Yun Joong Kim, Han Soo Yoo, Jin Ho Jung, KyoungWon Baik, Hye Sun Lee, Yang Hyun Lee, Ji-Man Hong, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee, Jay Magaziner
    The Journals of Gerontology: Series A.2021; 76(12): 2242.     CrossRef
  • Dopamine Transporter Imaging, Current Status of a Potential Biomarker: A Comprehensive Review
    Giovanni Palermo, Sara Giannoni, Gabriele Bellini, Gabriele Siciliano, Roberto Ceravolo
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2021; 22(20): 11234.     CrossRef
  • Sex‐specific association of urate and levodopa‐induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease
    J. H. Jung, S. J. Chung, H. S. Yoo, Y. H. Lee, K. Baik, B. S. Ye, Y. H. Sohn, P. H. Lee
    European Journal of Neurology.2020; 27(10): 1948.     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in primary delusional infestatation: An insight into etiology and potential novel therapy
    Stephanie Y. Chan, John Koo
    International Journal of Women's Dermatology.2020; 6(3): 226.     CrossRef
  • Joint Multi-modal Parcellation of the Human Striatum: Functions and Clinical Relevance
    Xiaojin Liu, Simon B. Eickhoff, Felix Hoffstaedter, Sarah Genon, Svenja Caspers, Kathrin Reetz, Imis Dogan, Claudia R. Eickhoff, Ji Chen, Julian Caspers, Niels Reuter, Christian Mathys, André Aleman, Renaud Jardri, Valentin Riedl, Iris E. Sommer, Kaustubh
    Neuroscience Bulletin.2020; 36(10): 1123.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of Pharyngeal Dysphagia in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
    Inga Claus, Paul Muhle, Judith Suttrup, Bendix Labeit, Sonja Suntrup-Krueger, Rainer Dziewas, Tobias Warnecke
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2020; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Emerging Concepts of Motor Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Jae Jung Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2020; 13(3): 171.     CrossRef
  • Lack of consistent sex differences in d-amphetamine-induced dopamine release measured with [18F]fallypride PET
    Christopher T. Smith, Linh C. Dang, Leah L. Burgess, Scott F. Perkins, M. Danica San Juan, Darcy K. Smith, Ronald L. Cowan, Nam T. Le, Robert M. Kessler, Gregory R. Samanez-Larkin, David H. Zald
    Psychopharmacology.2019; 236(2): 581.     CrossRef
  • Predictive clinical factors for penetration and aspiration in Parkinson's disease
    Julie Cläre Nienstedt, Moritz Bihler, Almut Niessen, Rosemarie Plaetke, Monika Pötter‐Nerger, Christian Gerloff, Carsten Buhmann, Christina Pflug
    Neurogastroenterology & Motility.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Does the Side Onset of Parkinson’s Disease Influence the Time to Develop Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia?
    Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Hye Sun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2019; 9(1): 241.     CrossRef
  • Beneficial effect of estrogen on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in drug-naïve postmenopausal Parkinson’s disease
    Yang Hyun Lee, Jungho Cha, Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Young H. Sohn, Byoung Seok Ye, Phil Hyu Lee
    Scientific Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The sex-specific interaction of the microbiome in neurodegenerative diseases
    Laura M. Cox, Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Amir Hadi Maghzi, Julia Vincentini, Howard L. Weiner
    Brain Research.2019; 1724: 146385.     CrossRef
  • Patterns of age related changes for phosphodiesterase type-10A in comparison with dopamine D 2/3 receptors and sub-cortical volumes in the human basal ganglia: A PET study with 18 F-MNI-659 and 11 C-raclopride with correction for partial volume effect
    Patrik Fazio, Martin Schain, Ladislav Mrzljak, Nahid Amini, Sangram Nag, Nabil Al-Tawil, Cheryl J. Fitzer-Attas, Juliana Bronzova, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Cristina Sampaio, Christer Halldin, Andrea Varrone
    NeuroImage.2017; 152: 330.     CrossRef
  • Potential therapeutic effects of odorants through their ectopic receptors in pigmented cells
    Barbara Pavan, Antonio Capuzzo, Alessandro Dalpiaz
    Drug Discovery Today.2017; 22(7): 1123.     CrossRef
  • Gender differences in Parkinson's disease: A clinical perspective
    D. Georgiev, K. Hamberg, M. Hariz, L. Forsgren, G.-M. Hariz
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica.2017; 136(6): 570.     CrossRef
  • The relationship between subcortical brain volume and striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in healthy humans assessed with [11C]‐raclopride and [11C]‐(+)‐PHNO PET
    Fernando Caravaggio, Jun Ku Chung, Eric Plitman, Isabelle Boileau, Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Yusuke Iwata, Raihaan Patel, M. Mallar Chakravarty, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff‐Guerrero
    Human Brain Mapping.2017; 38(11): 5519.     CrossRef
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene are associated with sporadic Parkinson’s disease in the North-eastern Han Chinese population
    Xiaoyuan Li, Li Xue, Jinfang Sun, Yanping Sun, Anmu Xie
    Neuroscience Letters.2017; 656: 72.     CrossRef
  • Trait impulsiveness is related to smaller post‐commissural putamen volumes in males but not females
    Fernando Caravaggio, Eric Plitman, Jun Ku Chung, Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Yusuke Iwata, Mallar Chakravarty, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff‐Guerrero
    European Journal of Neuroscience.2017; 46(7): 2253.     CrossRef
  • Does smoking impact dopamine neuronal loss in de novo Parkinson disease?
    Yoonju Lee, Jungsu S. Oh, Seok Jong Chung, Su Jin Chung, Soo‐Jong Kim, Chung Mo Nam, Phil Hyu Lee, Jae Seung Kim, Young H. Sohn
    Annals of Neurology.2017; 82(5): 850.     CrossRef
  • The analysis of relationship between selected sociodemografic factors and disorders of speech organs in Parkinson`s patients
    Wioletta Pawlukowska, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Iwona Rotter, Krystyna Honczarenko, Przemysław Nowacki
    BMC Neurology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dose‐Response Analysis of the Effect of Carbidopa‐Levodopa Extended‐Release Capsules (IPX066) in Levodopa‐Naive Patients With Parkinson Disease
    Zhongping Lily Mao, Nishit B. Modi
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.2016; 56(8): 974.     CrossRef
Case Report
Restlessness with Manic Episodes due to Right Parietal Infarction
Suk Yun Kang, Jong Won Paik, Young Ho Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2010;3(1):22-24.
  • 15,086 View
  • 93 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Mood disorders following acute stroke are relatively common. However, restlessness with manic episodes has rarely been reported. Lesions responsible for post-stroke mania can be located in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, and temporal and frontal lobes. We present a patient who exhibited restlessness with manic episodes after an acute infarction in the right parietal lobe, and summarize the case reports involving post-stroke mania. The right parietal stroke causing mania in our case is a novel observation that may help us to understand the mechanisms underlying restlessness with mania following acute stroke.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Restlessness with manic episodes induced by right-sided multiple strokes after COVID-19 infection: A case report
    Takahiko Nagamine
    Brain Circulation.2023; 9(2): 112.     CrossRef
  • Poststroke Mania During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Takahiko Nagamine
    Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease.2023; 211(12): 979.     CrossRef
  • Management of psychiatric disorders in patients with stroke and traumatic brain injury
    Gautam Saha, Kaustav Chakraborty, Amrit Pattojoshi
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry.2022; 64(8): 344.     CrossRef
  • Post stroke delirium
    M. A. Savina
    Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova.2014; 114(12. Vyp. 2): 19.     CrossRef
Invited Review
Positron Emission Tomography in the Differential Diagnosis of Parkinsonism
Juha O Rinne
J Mov Disord. 2009;2(2):53-57.
  • 10,682 View
  • 77 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Positron emission tomography (PET) studies on presynaptic dopaminergic function can reveal hypofunction in early Parkinson’s disease (PD) which may help in the early diagnosis especially in patients with mild symptoms. This hypofunction can be detected with fluorodopa (reflecting mainly aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity of nigrostriatal terminals) or dopamine transporter ligands. These studies can also help to distinguish PD from essential tremor. However, investigations of presynaptic dopaminergic function are not useful in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes. PET ligands, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (reflecting glucose metabolism) and dopamine receptor ligands, reflecting striatal neuronal function are better in this respect. Cardiac sympathetic function studies represent a new and interesting approach to improve differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes but more studies are needed in larger patient populations with longer follow-up to evaluate the usefulness of these investigations. Multitracer approach combining ligands reflecting different aspects of dopaminergic neurotransmission and other physiological function will increase differential diagnostic accuracy.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Dopamine Synthesis in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System in Patients at Risk of Developing Parkinson’s Disease at the Prodromal Stage
    Victor Blokhin, Ekaterina N. Pavlova, Elena A. Katunina, Marina R. Nodel, Galina V. Kataeva, Elina R. Moskalets, Tatiana S. Pronina, Michael V. Ugrumov
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(3): 875.     CrossRef
  • Feature extraction and classification of static spiral tests to assist the detection of Parkinson’s disease
    Isabel Sarzo-Wabi, Daniel-Alejandro Galindo-Lazo, Roberto Rosas-Romero
    Multimedia Tools and Applications.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Hand Tremor Questionnaire: A Useful Screening Tool for Differentiating Patients with Hand Tremor between Parkinson's Disease and Essential Tremor
    Kyum-Yil Kwon, Ho-Sung Ryu, Hye Mi Lee, Mi-Jung Kim, Hae-Won Shin, Hee Kyung Park, Sooyeoun You, Young-Hee Sung, Sun Ju Chung, Seong-Beom Koh
    Journal of Clinical Neurology.2018; 14(3): 381.     CrossRef
  • Parkinsonian Patient with Comorbid Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
    Jeong-Yoon Lee, Kayeong Im, Kyum-Yil Kwon
    Clinical Neuroradiology.2018; 28(4): 617.     CrossRef
Review Article
Microglial Imaging in Movement Disorders With PK11195 PET
Seong-Beom Koh
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):1-5.
  • 9,691 View
  • 137 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Activated microglia play a major role in the pathogenesis in neurological disorders. The transition of microglia from the normal resting state to the activated state is associated with an increased expression of receptors known as peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites, which are abundant on cells of mononuclear phagocyte lineage. PK11195 is a ligand which binds selectively to peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites, a type of receptor selectively expressed by activated microglia in the central nervous system. The 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET) is already applied to many kinds of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative disorders, and can demonstrate the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. And this imaging modality also provides a means to monitor potential clinical relevance of antiinflammatory treatment strategies in vivo. This article reviews some of the clinical applications of 11C-(R)-PK11195 PET in the field of movement disorders.

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