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Original Article
Parkinson’s Disease, Impulsive-Compulsive Behaviors, and Health-Related Quality of Life
Marie Grall-Bronnec, Audrey Verholleman, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Juliette Leboucher, Elsa Thiabaud, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Benoit Schreck, Tiphaine Rouaud, Monica Roy, Pascal Derkinderen, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
J Mov Disord. 2024;17(1):82-88.   Published online November 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23042
  • 1,050 View
  • 112 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
A large body of literature has examined the links between the use of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the development of “impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICBs).” Little is known regarding the link between the development of ICBs and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We aimed to explore the factors that are associated with poorer HRQOL, especially in relation to DRT-induced ICBs, in a sample of PD patients.
Methods
This PARKADD (PARK: PARKinson’s disease; ADD: behavioral ADDictions) study was a prospective case‒control study initially designed to assess the factors associated with ICBs in PD patients. A prospective clinical follow-up was added, aiming to capture the long-term evolution of HRQOL in relation to ICBs occurring or worsening after the beginning of PD. We focused on sociodemographic and PD characteristics and the history or presence of ICBs. HRQOL was measured using the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-8. A multivariate linear regression was performed to identify factors related to poorer HRQOL.
Results
A total of 169 patients were eligible for the follow-up study. The presence of an ICB, a higher levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and a longer PD duration were significantly associated with poorer HRQOL, with an interaction between LEDD and PD duration.
Conclusion
The presence of an ICB was related to poorer HRQOL and should be considered a crucial factor for the management of PD patients. Several studies were recently published that provide guidelines for the management of these patients, with recommendations based on two key principles: prevention and specific treatment.
Brief communications
Dance Intervention Using the Feldenkrais Method Improves Motor, and Non-Motor Symptoms and Gait in Parkinson’s Disease: A 12-Month Study
Sung Hoon Kang, Jinhee Kim, Ilsoo Kim, Young Ae Moon, Sojung Park, Seong-Beom Koh
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(1):53-57.   Published online November 3, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21086
  • 4,371 View
  • 381 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of dancing (using the Feldenkrais method) on motor and non-motor symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and objective parameters of gait at the time of intervention and at the end of the 1-year study period.
Methods
This was a single-arm study in which 12 subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) received dance intervention during a 6-month period. Objective motor scales, gait analysis, and questionnaires on non-motor symptoms were evaluated at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months.
Results
Dance intervention decreased motor scale (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Tinetti scale) scores and improved gait disturbance (gait velocity and step length) without increasing levodopa equivalent dose. Furthermore, dancing decreased non-motor scale (Non-Motor Symptoms Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) scores and improved QoL.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that dance intervention can be a complementary management method for PD patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Mild cognitive impairment is associated with poor gait performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Sung Hoon Kang, Jinhee Kim, Jungyeun Lee, Seong-Beom Koh
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Investigation of Nocturnal Hypokinesia and Health-Related Quality of Life in Parkinsonian Patients with the Korean Version of the Nocturnal Hypokinesia Questionnaire
Ji-Hyun Choi, Jee-Young Lee, Chaewon Shin, Dallah Yoo, Jin Hee Im, Kyung Ah Woo, Han-Joon Kim, Tae-Beom Ahn, Jong-Min Kim, Beomseok Jeon
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(3):221-225.   Published online May 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20172
  • 4,302 View
  • 71 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
To assess nocturnal hypokinesia using the Korean version of the Nocturnal Hypokinesia Questionnaire (NHQ-K) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients across disease stages.
Methods
We developed the NHQ-K and performed questionnaire-based interviews with 108 PD patients from three referral hospitals. Clinical associations of nocturnal hypokinesia and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were also analyzed.
Results
The NHQ-K showed acceptable internal consistency (0.83) and interrater reliability (0.95). Nocturnal hypokinesia significantly affected HRQoL in PD patients at both the early and advanced stages (adjusted p < 0.001). Increased severity of nocturnal hypokinesia was associated with dyskinesias, off-period disability, apathy, and anxious mood in PD patients (adjusted p < 0.01) after controlling for disease severity and medication dose.
Conclusion
The NHQ-K is useful for screening nocturnal hypokinesia in PD patients. Given the high impact of nocturnal hypokinesia on HRQoL, comprehensive management of nocturnal disability is needed for PD patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Technological evaluation of strategies to get out of bed by people with Parkinson's disease: Insights from multisite wearable sensors
    Jirada Sringean, Chusak Thanawattano, Roongroj Bhidayasiri
    Frontiers in Medical Technology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Health-Related Quality of Life for Parkinson’s Disease Patients and Their Caregivers
Michal Lubomski, Ryan L. Davis, Carolyn M. Sue
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(1):42-52.   Published online January 12, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20079
  • 10,644 View
  • 291 Download
  • 25 Web of Science
  • 24 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) negatively impact the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD), as well as their caregivers. NMS can emerge decades prior to the manifestation of motor symptoms but often go unrecognized and therefore untreated. To guide clinical management, we surveyed differences and identified factors that influence HRQoL in a cohort of PD patients and family caregivers.
Methods
A total of 103 PD patients were compared with 81 caregivers. Outcome measures collected from validated questionnaires included generic and disease-specific HRQoL assessments, depression frequency and severity, constipation severity, upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms, physical activity and motor symptom severity.
Results
PD patients reported significantly decreased physical and mental HRQoL compared to their caregivers (both p < 0.001). Unemployment, the need for social support services, rehabilitation use, REM sleep behavior disorder, impulse control disorders and features suggestive of increasing disease severity hallmarked by increasing PD duration, higher MDS UPDRS-III (Movement Disorder Society–Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale–Part III) scores, higher daily levodopa equivalence dose and motor fluctuations were consistent with a lower HRQoL in our PD cohort. Furthermore, decreased physical activity, chronic pain, depression, constipation and upper gastrointestinal dysfunction (particularly indigestion, excess fullness and bloating) suggested vulnerability to reduced HRQoL. Overall, PD patients perceived their health to decline by 12% more than their caregivers did over a 1-year period.
Conclusion
PD patients reported decreased HRQoL, with both motor symptoms and NMS negatively impacting HRQoL. Our findings support the routine clinical screening of HRQoL in PD patients to identify and address modifiable factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Risk factors and intervention of caregiver burden in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Yan Zhao, Wenxiang Wu, Jianjun Wu, Bin Shen, Yanpei Cao, Yafang Xu
    Quality of Life Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Health-related quality of life in Parkinson’s disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of EuroQol (EQ-5D) utility scores
    Raghu Bhanupriya, Madhumitha Haridoss, Goda Suchitra Lakshmi, Bhavani Shankara Bagepally
    Quality of Life Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impact of advanced Parkinson’s disease on caregivers: an international real-world study
    Pablo Martinez-Martin, Matej Skorvanek, Tove Henriksen, Susanna Lindvall, Josefa Domingos, Ali Alobaidi, Prasanna L. Kandukuri, Vivek S. Chaudhari, Apeksha B. Patel, Juan Carlos Parra, James Pike, Angelo Antonini
    Journal of Neurology.2023; 270(4): 2162.     CrossRef
  • Perspectives of people with Parkinson's disease and family carers about disease management in community settings: A cross‐country qualitative study
    M. Victoria Navarta‐Sánchez, Ana Palmar‐Santos, Azucena Pedraz‐Marcos, Claire Reidy, Dia Soilemezi, Anita Haahr, Dorthe Sørensen, Helle Rønn Smidt, Line Kildal Bragstad, Ellen Gabrielsen Hjelle, Silje Bjørnsen Haavaag, Mari Carmen Portillo
    Journal of Clinical Nursing.2023; 32(15-16): 5201.     CrossRef
  • Barriers to home exercise for patients with Parkinson’s disease: a qualitative study
    Qiaohong Wang, Yiping Chen, Linbo Li, Chao Li, Li Li, Huili Cao, Hui Yang
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(2): e061932.     CrossRef
  • An update on pathogenesis and clinical scenario for Parkinson’s disease: diagnosis and treatment
    Hussaini Adam, Subash C. B. Gopinath, M. K. Md Arshad, Tijjani Adam, N. A. Parmin, Irzaman Husein, Uda Hashim
    3 Biotech.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease: Neuro-Gastroenterology Perspectives on a Multifaceted Problem
    Ai Huey Tan, Kee Huat Chuah, Yuan Ye Beh, Jie Ping Schee, Sanjiv Mahadeva, Shen-Yang Lim
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2023; 16(2): 138.     CrossRef
  • Abdominal pain in Parkinson’s disease
    A.A. Pilipovich, O.V. Vorobyova, S.A. Makarov
    Russian Journal of Pain.2023; 21(2): 12.     CrossRef
  • The multifaceted impact of structured training program on persons with Parkinson disease and their adult caregiver: A protocol for a systematic review
    Sharmila Gopala Krishna Pillai, Nor Azlin Mohd Nordin, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim
    Medicine.2023; 102(28): e33966.     CrossRef
  • Detecting Minor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease in the Wild Using Bi-LSTM with Attention Mechanism
    Vasileios Skaramagkas, Iro Boura, Cleanthi Spanaki, Emilia Michou, Georgios Karamanis, Zinovia Kefalopoulou, Manolis Tsiknakis
    Sensors.2023; 23(18): 7850.     CrossRef
  • Lower gastrointestinal dysfunction in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    A.A. Pilipovich, O.V. Vorob’eva, S.A. Makarov, A.V. Kuchuk
    Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova.2023; 123(12): 42.     CrossRef
  • The impact of device-assisted therapies on the gut microbiome in Parkinson’s disease
    Michal Lubomski, Xiangnan Xu, Andrew J. Holmes, Jean Y. H. Yang, Carolyn M. Sue, Ryan L. Davis
    Journal of Neurology.2022; 269(2): 780.     CrossRef
  • Predictive Model of Quality of Life in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
    Eduardo Candel-Parra, María Pilar Córcoles-Jiménez, Victoria Delicado-Useros, Marta Carolina Ruiz-Grao, Antonio Hernández-Martínez, Milagros Molina-Alarcón
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(2): 672.     CrossRef
  • Die neue Parkinson-Schmerzklassifikation (PSK)
    V. Mylius, S. Perez Lloret, C. S. Brook, M. T. Krüger, S. Hägele-Link, R. Gonzenbach, J. Kassubek, S. Bohlhalter, J. P. Lefaucheur, L. Timmermann, G. Kägi, F. Brugger, D. Ciampi de Andrade, J. C. Möller
    Der Nervenarzt.2022; 93(10): 1019.     CrossRef
  • Quantification Analysis of Sleep Based on Smartwatch Sensors for Parkinson’s Disease
    Yi-Feng Ko, Pei-Hsin Kuo, Ching-Fu Wang, Yu-Jen Chen, Pei-Chi Chuang, Shih-Zhang Li, Bo-Wei Chen, Fu-Chi Yang, Yu-Chun Lo, Yi Yang, Shuan-Chu Vina Ro, Fu-Shan Jaw, Sheng-Huang Lin, You-Yin Chen
    Biosensors.2022; 12(2): 74.     CrossRef
  • Gastrointestinal Dysfunction Impact on Life Quality in a Cohort of Russian Patients with Parkinson’s Disease I-III H&Y Stage
    A. A. Pilipovich, O. V. Vorob’eva, S. A. Makarov, N. N. Shindryaeva, Yu D. Vorob’eva, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad
    Parkinson's Disease.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Nutritional Intake and Gut Microbiome Composition Predict Parkinson’s Disease
    Michal Lubomski, Xiangnan Xu, Andrew J. Holmes, Samuel Muller, Jean Y. H. Yang, Ryan L. Davis, Carolyn M. Sue
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Gut Microbiome in Parkinson’s Disease: A Longitudinal Study of the Impacts on Disease Progression and the Use of Device-Assisted Therapies
    Michal Lubomski, Xiangnan Xu, Andrew J. Holmes, Samuel Muller, Jean Y. H. Yang, Ryan L. Davis, Carolyn M. Sue
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Characteristics and quality of life of substance users and their caregivers
    Jadranka M. Maksimovic, Olivera B. Sbutega, Aleksandar D. Pavlovic, Hristina D. Vlajinac, Ivana I. Kavecan, Isidora S. Vujcic, Sandra B. Grujicic Sipetic
    Medicine.2022; 101(31): e29699.     CrossRef
  • Defining the unknowns for cell therapies in Parkinson's disease
    Emma L. Lane, Mariah J. Lelos
    Disease Models & Mechanisms.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Increased Added Sugar Consumption Is Common in Parkinson's Disease
    Natalie C. Palavra, Michal Lubomski, Victoria M. Flood, Ryan L. Davis, Carolyn M. Sue
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Relationship Satisfaction in People with Parkinson’s Disease and Their Caregivers: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study
    Johanne Heine, Hannah von Eichel, Selma Staege, Günter U. Höglinger, Florian Wegner, Martin Klietz
    Brain Sciences.2021; 11(6): 822.     CrossRef
  • Diagnosis and Management of Pain in Parkinson's Disease: A New Approach
    Veit Mylius, Jens Carsten Möller, Stephan Bohlhalter, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Santiago Perez Lloret
    Drugs & Aging.2021; 38(7): 559.     CrossRef
  • Cognitive Influences in Parkinson's Disease Patients and Their Caregivers: Perspectives From an Australian Cohort
    Michal Lubomski, Ryan L. Davis, Carolyn M. Sue
    Frontiers in Neurology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Impact of Impulsivity on Quality of Life in Early Drug-Naïve Parkinson’s Disease Patients
Dong-Woo Ryu, Joong-Seok Kim, Sang-Won Yoo, Yoon-Sang Oh, Kwang-Soo Lee
J Mov Disord. 2019;12(3):172-176.   Published online August 9, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.19004
Correction in: J Mov Disord 2021;14(2):176
  • 5,358 View
  • 107 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are mostly related to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT); however, drug-naïve PD patients have also frequently experienced impulsivity. This phenomenon makes clinicians hesitate treating patients with DRT. In this study, we assessed the effect of impulsivity on quality of life (QOL) in drug-naïve PD patients.
Methods
Two hundred three newly diagnosed, nonmedicated PD patients were enrolled, and they received structured clinical interviews, physical examinations and validated questionnaires to evaluate motor and nonmotor symptoms and QOL. Impulsivity was evaluated using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease-Rating Scale (QUIP-RS).
Results
Thirty-eight patients (18.7%) had impulsivity with QUIP-RS scores ≥ 1 and 4 patients (2.0%) were diagnosed with combined ICDs. Motor and nonmotor symptoms were significantly correlated with the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39 summary index. Female sex and QUIP-RS scores were also correlated with QOL in drug-naïve PD patients.
Conclusion
The results of the present study showed that impulsivity negatively influences QOL in early drug-naïve PD patients. In addition, more severe motor and nonmotor symptoms were also associated with lower QOL. Such findings complicate treatment but provide valuable information for managing early PD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Frequency of Impulsive-Compulsive Behavior and Associated Psychological Factors in Parkinson’s Disease: Lack of Control or Too Much of It?
    Alexandros Kapsomenakis, Dimitrios Kasselimis, Emily Vaniotis, Anastasia Bougea, Christos Koros, Athina Maria Simitsi, Leonidas Stefanis, Constantin Potagas
    Medicina.2023; 59(11): 1942.     CrossRef
  • Locus Coeruleus Integrity Is Linked to Response Inhibition Deficits in Parkinson's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
    Rong Ye, Frank H. Hezemans, Claire O'Callaghan, Kamen A. Tsvetanov, Catarina Rua, P. Simon Jones, Negin Holland, Maura Malpetti, Alexander G. Murley, Roger A. Barker, Caroline H. Williams-Gray, Trevor W. Robbins, Luca Passamonti, James B. Rowe
    The Journal of Neuroscience.2023; 43(42): 7028.     CrossRef
  • Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease After Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation
    Weibing Liu, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Yoshitaka Yamanaka, Masato Asahina, Tomoyuki Uchiyama, Shigeki Hirano, Keisuke Shimizu, Yoshinori Higuchi, Satoshi Kuwabara
    Frontiers in Neurology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dopamine genetic risk score predicts impulse control behaviors in Parkinson’s disease
    Alison Hall, Samuel R. Weaver, Lindsey J. Compton, Winston D. Byblow, Ned Jenkinson, Hayley J. MacDonald
    Clinical Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2021; 5: 100113.     CrossRef
  • A Review of the Concept of Impulsivity
    Mohammed Munther Al-Hammouri, Jehad A. Rababah, Celeste Shawler
    Advances in Nursing Science.2021; 44(4): 357.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of therapeutic strategies for management of impulse control disorder in Parkinson’s disease
    Mayela Rodríguez-Violante, Yazmín Ríos-Solís, Oscar Esquivel-Zapata, Fanny Herrera, Susana López-Alamillo, Cynthia Sarabia-Tapia, Amin Cervantes-Arriaga
    Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria.2021; 79(11): 989.     CrossRef
Musculoskeletal Problems Affect the Quality of Life of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Young Eun Kim, Han-Joon Kim, Ji Young Yun, Woong-Woo Lee, Hui-Jun Yang, Jong-Min Kim, Beomseok Jeon
J Mov Disord. 2018;11(3):133-138.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.18022
  • 8,194 View
  • 148 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Musculoskeletal problems are more common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) than in normal elderly, but the impact of musculoskeletal problems on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with PD is unknown.
Methods
Four hundred consecutive patients with PD were enrolled for the evaluation of musculoskeletal problems and HRQoL. HRQoL was assessed by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, which comprised physical health and mental health.
Results
Of the total patients, 265 patients had musculoskeletal problems, and 135 patients did not have musculoskeletal problems. Patients with musculoskeletal problems reported lower levels of HRQoL in terms of physical health than did patients without musculoskeletal problems (p < 0.05). In women, all components of physical health were lower in patients with musculoskeletal problems than in patients without musculoskeletal problems (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, in men, only the bodily pain score of physical health was lower in patients with musculoskeletal problems than in patients without musculoskeletal problems. Mental health and physical health were negatively correlated with depression, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale I & II scores, and pain severity from musculoskeletal problems, in that order (p < 0.01 for all).
Conclusion
These results suggest that musculoskeletal problems in patients with PD affect HRQoL significantly, mainly in terms of physical health rather than mental health and especially in women rather than men. Musculoskeletal problems should not be overlooked in the care of patients with PD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Total knee arthroplasty in patients with Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
    Guangchen Sun, Hui Yu, Jun Cui, Ming Li, Yuefang Ru
    Medicine.2022; 101(52): e32315.     CrossRef
  • Quality of life of older adults in two contrasting neighbourhoods in Accra, Ghana
    Dominic A. Alaazi, Devidas Menon, Tania Stafinski, Stephen Hodgins, Gian Jhangri
    Social Science & Medicine.2021; 270: 113659.     CrossRef
  • The Efficiency of Spa Rehabilitation in Chronic Ischemic Stroke Patients—Preliminary Reports
    Bogumiła Pniak, Justyna Leszczak, Jadwiga Kurczab, Aleksandra Krzemińska, Joanna Pięta, Agnieszka Plis, Ewelina Czenczek-Lewandowska, Agnieszka Guzik
    Brain Sciences.2021; 11(4): 501.     CrossRef
  • Sex-specific effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on pain in Parkinson’s disease
    Olga Khazen, Marisa DiMarzio, Kelsey Platanitis, Heather C. Grimaudo, Maria Hancu, Miriam M. Shao, Michael D. Staudt, Lucy Maguire, Vishad V. Sukul, Jennifer Durphy, Era K. Hanspal, Octavian Adam, Eric Molho, Julie G. Pilitsis
    Journal of Neurosurgery.2021; 135(2): 629.     CrossRef
  • An overview of pain in Parkinson's disease
    Yi-Cheng Tai, Chin-Hsien Lin
    Clinical Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2020; 2: 1.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Perspectives of Parkinson's Disease for Ophthalmologists, Otorhinolaryngologists, Cardiologists, Dentists, Gastroenterologists, Urologists, Physiatrists, and Psychiatrists
    Ji-Hyun Choi, Jong-Min Kim, Hee Kyung Yang, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol Min Shin, Seong Jin Jeong, Won-Seok Kim, Ji Won Han, In-Young Yoon, Yoo Sung Song, Yun Jung Bae
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Parkinson's Disease Is Associated with Increased Complications, Readmission Rates, and Costs of Care after Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Matched-Cohort Analysis
    Simon Katz, Kevin B. Marchand, Rushabh M. Vakharia, Hiba Anis, Nipun Sodhi, Nicolas S. Piuzzi, Michael A. Mont, Martin W. Roche
    The Journal of Hip Surgery.2020; 4(03): 149.     CrossRef
  • Chronic Pain Treatment Strategies in Parkinson’s Disease
    Amber Edinoff, Niro Sathivadivel, Timothy McBride, Allyson Parker, Chikezie Okeagu, Alan D. Kaye, Adam M. Kaye, Jessica S. Kaye, Rachel J. Kaye, Meeta M. Sheth, Omar Viswanath, Ivan Urits
    Neurology International.2020; 12(3): 61.     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in the short-term and long-term effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease
    Ryul Kim, Dallah Yoo, Ji-Hyun Choi, Jung Hwan Shin, Sangmin Park, Han-Joon Kim, Sun Ha Paek, Beomseok Jeon
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2019; 68: 73.     CrossRef

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