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Original Article
Phenotypic Spectrum of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Clinical Study and Apolipoprotein E Effect
Amina Nasri, Ikram Sghaier, Anis Neji, Alya Gharbi, Youssef Abida, Saloua Mrabet, Amina Gargouri, Mouna Ben Djebara, Imen Kacem, Riadh Gouider
J Mov Disord. 2024;17(2):158-170.   Published online January 30, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23178
  • 1,190 View
  • 71 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder encompassing several phenotypes with various motor and cognitive deficits. We aimed to study motor and cognitive characteristics across PSP phenotypes and to assess the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene variants on PSP phenotypic expression.
Methods
In this 20-year cross-sectional study, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients classified as PSP patients and recategorized them according to phenotype using the Movement Disorder Society criteria (2017). Phenotypes were divided into three subgroups, Richardson’s syndrome (PSP-RS), PSP-cortical (PSP with predominant frontal presentation [PSP-F] + PSP with predominant speech/language disorder [PSP-SL] + PSP with predominant corticobasal syndrome [PSP-CBS]) and PSP-subcortical (PSP with predominant parkinsonism [PSP-P] + PSP with progressive gait freezing [PSP-PGF] + PSP with predominant postural instability [PSP-PI] + PSP with predominant ocular motor dysfunction [PSP-OM] + PSP with cerebellar ataxia [PSP-C] + PSP with primary lateral sclerosis [PSP-PLS]), based on clinical presentation during the first 3 years after symptom onset, which defines the early disease stage. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment data were collected. Genotyping of APOE was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction and verified by Sanger sequencing.
Results
We included 112 PSP patients comprising 10 phenotypes classified into 48 PSP-RS, 34 PSP-cortical (PSP-CBS, 17.6%; PSP-F, 9.4%; PSP-SL, 8.2%) and 30 PSP-subcortical (PSP-P, 11.6%; PSP-PI, 8%; PSP-OM, 2.7%; PSP-PGF, 1.8%; PSP-C, 1.8%; PSP-PLS, 0.9%) subgroups. PSP-RS patients were older at disease onset (p = 0.009) and had more akinetic-rigid and levodopa-resistant parkinsonism (p = 0.006), while PSP-cortical patients had more tremors and asymmetric and/or levodopa-responsive parkinsonism (p = 0.025). Cognitive domains were significantly less altered in the PSP-subcortical subgroup. Overall, PSP-APOEε4 carriers developed parkinsonism earlier (p = 0.038), had earlier oculomotor dysfunction (p = 0.052) and had more altered cognitive profiles. The APOEε4 allele was also associated with a younger age of parkinsonism onset in the PSP-RS phenotype group (p = 0.026).
Conclusion
This study demonstrated the wide phenotypic spectrum of PSP among Tunisians. Disease onset and akinetic-rigid and levodopa-resistant parkinsonism were the hallmarks of the PSP-RS phenotype, while milder cognitive impairment was characteristic of the PSP-subcortical subgroup. The APOEε4 allele was associated with earlier parkinsonism and oculomotor dysfunction and seemed to play a role in defining a more altered cognitive profile in PSP patients.
Review Articles
Immunotherapy Targeting Neurodegenerative Proteinopathies: α-Synucleinopathies and Tauopathies
Junghwan Shin, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(1):11-19.   Published online December 19, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.19057
  • 10,934 View
  • 462 Download
  • 19 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
α-Synuclein and tau deposition in the central nervous system is responsible for various parkinsonian syndromes, including Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. Emerging evidence has suggested that pathologic α-synuclein and tau are transmitted from cell to cell and further accelerate the aggregation of pathologic proteins in neighboring cells. Furthermore, extracellular pathologic proteins have also been reported to provoke inflammatory responses that lead to neurodegeneration. Therefore, immunotherapies targeting extracellular α-synuclein and tau have been proposed as potential disease-modifying strategies. In this review, we summarize completed phase I trials and ongoing phase II trials of immunotherapies against α-synuclein and tau and further discuss concerns and hurdles to overcome in the future.

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    Neurotherapeutics.2020; 17(3): 935.     CrossRef
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    Kyu-Young Sim, Kyeong Chan Im, Sung-Gyoo Park
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2020; 21(15): 5295.     CrossRef
  • Novel antibodies detect additional α-synuclein pathology in synucleinopathies: potential development for immunotherapy
    Jacqui T. Nimmo, Ajay Verma, Jean-Cosme Dodart, Chang Yi Wang, Jimmy Savistchenko, Ronald Melki, Roxana O. Carare, James A. R. Nicoll
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Tau Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in Degenerative Parkinsonisms
Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Hanna Cho, Jae Yong Choi, Young Hoon Ryu, Myung Sik Lee
J Mov Disord. 2018;11(1):1-12.   Published online January 23, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.17071
  • 11,759 View
  • 424 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
In recent years, several radiotracers that selectively bind to pathological tau proteins have been developed. Evidence is emerging that binding patterns of in vivo tau positron emission tomography (PET) studies in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients closely resemble the distribution patterns of known neurofibrillary tangle pathology, with the extent of tracer binding reflecting the clinical and pathological progression of AD. In Lewy body diseases (LBD), tau PET imaging has clearly revealed cortical tau burden with a distribution pattern distinct from AD and increased cortical binding within the LBD spectrum. In progressive supranuclear palsy, the globus pallidus and midbrain have shown increased binding most prominently. Tau PET patterns in patients with corticobasal syndrome are characterized by asymmetrical uptake in the motor cortex and underlying white matter, as well as in the basal ganglia. Even in the patients with multiple system atrophy, which is basically a synucleinopathy, 18F-flortaucipir, a widely used tau PET tracer, also binds to the atrophic posterior putamen, possibly due to off-target binding. These distinct patterns of tau-selective radiotracer binding in the various degenerative parkinsonisms suggest its utility as a potential imaging biomarker for the differential diagnosis of parkinsonisms.

Citations

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Clinical Approach to Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Helen Ling
J Mov Disord. 2016;9(1):3-13.   Published online January 25, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15060
  • 35,247 View
  • 1,271 Download
  • 51 Web of Science
  • 47 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Sixty years ago, Steele, Richardson and Olszewski designated progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) as a new clinicopathological entity in their seminal paper. Since then, in addition to the classic Richardson’s syndrome (RS), different clinical phenotypic presentations have been linked with this four-repeat tauopathy. The clinical heterogeneity is associated with variability of regional distribution and severity of abnormal tau accumulation and neuronal loss. In PSP subtypes, the presence of certain clinical pointers may be useful for antemortem prediction of the underlying PSP-tau pathology. Midbrain atrophy on conventional MRI correlates with the clinical phenotype of RS but is not predictive of PSP pathology. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and tau ligand positron emission tomography are promising biomarkers of PSP. A multidisciplinary approach to meet the patients’ complex needs is the current core treatment strategy for this devastating disorder.

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Genetics of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Sun Young Im, Young Eun Kim, Yun Joong Kim
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(3):122-129.   Published online September 10, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15033
  • 28,147 View
  • 386 Download
  • 40 Web of Science
  • 36 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is clinically characterized by progressive postural instability, supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. Pathologically, diagnosis of PSP is based on characteristic features, such as neurofibrillary tangles, neutrophil threads, tau-positive astrocytes and their processes in basal ganglia and brainstem, and the accumulation of 4 repeat tau protein. PSP is generally recognized as a sporadic disorder; however, understanding of genetic background of PSP has been expanding rapidly. Here we review relevant publications to outline the genetics of PSP. Although only small number of familial PSP cases have been reported, the recognition of familial PSP has been increasing. In some familial cases of clinically probable PSP, PSP pathologies were confirmed based on NINDS neuropathological diagnostic criteria. Several mutations in MAPT, the gene that causes a form of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy, have been identified in both sporadic and familial PSP cases. The H1 haplotype of MAPT is a risk haplotype for PSP, and within H1, a sub-haplotype (H1c) is associated with PSP. A recent genome-wide association study on autopsyproven PSP revealed additional PSP risk alleles in STX6 and EIF2AK3. Several heredodegenerative parkinsonian disorders are referred to as PSP-look-alikes because their clinical phenotype, but not their pathology, mimics PSP. Due to the fast development of genomics and bioinformatics, more genetic factors related to PSP are expected to be discovered. Undoubtedly, these studies will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PSP and clues for developing therapeutic strategies.

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