Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Articles

Page Path
HOME > J Mov Disord > Volume 4(2); 2011 > Article
Case Report
Vocal Polyps in Tourette Syndrome
Michael P Chua, Karen PM Chub, Kevin Fungc
Journal of Movement Disorders 2011;4(2):80-81.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11018
Published online: October 30, 2011
  • 7,451 Views
  • 32 Download
  • 1 Crossref

aDepartment of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

bDivision of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario, Canada

cDepartment of Otolaryngology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada

Corresponding author: Michael P Chu, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, 4000 Research Training Facility, 8308-114 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2V2, Tel +1-780-445-9123, Fax +1-780-248-1628, E-mail mpchu@ualberta.ca
• Received: June 27, 2011   • Accepted: September 29, 2011

Copyright © 2011 The Korean Movement Disorder Society

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • Hoarseness and dysphonia are often a result of vocal cord polyps which in turn, are linked to vocal trauma. We report the case of vocal polyps in the setting of a 27-year old male with a history only remarkable for Tourette syndrome. We review the literature regarding etiology and pathophysiology of vocal cord lesions and propose vocal tics in Tourette syndrome as an under-recognized etiology. In this way, we also review therapies that may aid in treating not only the vocal cord lesions but also particularly in the setting of vocal tics.
Laryngeal lesions such as vocal cord nodules and polyps are common occurrences that are typically associated with progressive hoarseness and dysphonia. While it is has been demonstrated that these vocal cord lesions are of multifactorial origin, vocal cord abuse appears to be paramount to the development of such pathology.1 Specifically, nodules are typically attributed to younger females with professions associated with increased voice use and repeated vocal cord trauma - leading to hyalinization of Reinke’s space, epithelial thickening and hyperplasia on the cords bilaterally.2 Vocal cord polyps however, are primarily found as bilateral lesions in smokers with or without histories of intense intermittent vocal abuse or some form of vocal trauma. Though not fully understood, it is believed that initially, there is a capillary breakage in Reinke’s space causing blood to extravasate, local edema, and the resulting lesion.3 In spite of its theoretical pathologic difference from nodules with a more fibrous stroma, it is often difficult for the pathologist to separate the two.
We report a case of a patient with unilateral vocal cord polyp not secondary to intense vocal abuse, but to chronic vocal cord abuse resulting from vocal tics in Tourette syndrome.
Mr. A.L. is a 27-year old male, who was originally diagnosed at the age of 6 with Tourette’s syndrome manifested by vocal tics, presented to his family physician with a 4-month history of hoarseness. He denies any history of trauma or vocal abuse prior to his symptoms. He is an overall two-pack year smoker, but has quit. Mr. A.L. is treated for his Tourette’s syndrome using haloperidol 1 mg twice daily, clonazepam as needed and sertraline. On physical examination, he was found to have a hoarse voice and vocal tics. Direct flexible nasopharyngoscopy revealed a polypoid lesion originating from the free edge of the anterior left true vocal fold (Figure 1). This lesion was amenable to transoral endoscopic microsurgical resection using a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, and after a discussion with the patient, he agreed to proceed with resection. Mr. A.L. was also asked to completed the University of Michigan Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) questionnaire which he scored 24 overall and considered his voice quality as poor.
Intraoperatively a left vocal fold lesion was identified and completely resected. Gross pathology demonstrated the small lesion to measure 0.3 × 0.2 × 0.1 cm. No dysplasia or malignancy was identified and the lesion was diagnosed as a vocal cord polyp.
Two weeks after endoscopic CO2 resection of the left vocal fold lesion, repeat laryngoscopic examination revealed complete resolution of the lesion with no evidence of scarring or web. Mr. A.L. repeated the V-RQOL questionnaire post-operatively and scored 11 overall and rated his voice quality as very good.
The relationship between vocal trauma, smoking, and gastroesophageal reflux disease and vocal cord polyps is well documented.1 Other rare cases of recurrent vocal cord polyps have been documented in relation to autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.2 While there is substantial evidence for vocal cord trauma, a review of literature failed to demonstrate previous documentation of a relationship between vocal tics or Tourette syndrome and vocal fold lesions.410
The etiology, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of vocal polyps and nodules are well understood. Traditionally, polyps are associated with intermittent intense vocal abuse and smoking while vocal nodules are thought to arise from chronic minor vocal cord abuse. In the case of Mr. A.L., he has no history of using his voice professionally or episodes of intense trauma. Further, he also has no history of gastroesophageal reflux disease or autoimmune diseases. The cause of this patient’s laryngeal lesion then is likely secondary to the history of chronic minor vocal cord abuse suffered from vocal tics in his Tourette syndrome. In this way, we also demonstrate that the minor laryngeal trauma has led to the development of a polyp rather than bilateral nodules. As it has been shown previously, it can be difficult for a pathologist to distinguish polyps and nodules.11,12
As previously stated, we had treated his hoarseness by excising the causative lesion. On the other hand, should this situation recur in this patient given the continuing vocal tics, definitive treatment for the vocal tics should be pursued. Unfortunately, unlike other incidences of vocal trauma, voice coaching would not be beneficial. More recently, Vincent et al.13 has shown the advantages of using botulinum toxin in the treatment of laryngeal tics.
Despite the possible confounding history of cigarette smoke exposure, it is important to include Tourette syndrome in the differential diagnosis of hoarseness. Moreover, the possibility of vocal cord polyps should not be isolated to those patients who use their voice professionally. With the evidence from this case report, further study into the prevalence of vocal cord lesions in patients with Tourette syndrome manifested by vocal tics may be warranted.

The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.

Figure 1
Vocal cord polyp on nasopharyngoscopy.
jmd-4-2-80-8f1.gif
  • 1. Husain AN, Kumar V. Head and Neck. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, editors. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders Publishing Company; 2005:773–797.ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 2. Johns MM. Update on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of vocal fold nodules, polyps, and cysts. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;11:456–461.ArticlePubMed
  • 3. Benjamin B. Vocal cord polyps. In: Benjamin B, editor. Endolaryngeal surgery. London: Martin Dunitz; 1998:237–240.
  • 4. Hosako-Naito Y, Tayama N, Niimi S, Aotsuka S, Miyaji M, Oka T, et al. Diagnosis and physiopathology of laryngeal deposits in autoimmune disease. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 1999;61:151–157.ArticlePubMed
  • 5. Fang TJ, Lee LA, Li HY, Yang C, Huang CG. Helicobacter pylori colonization in the larynges of patients with hoarseness. Laryngoscope 2008;118:389–393.ArticlePubMed
  • 6. Smith LJ, Sataloff RT. Vocal fold polyp in a professional singer. Ear Nose Throat J 2005;84:552.ArticlePubMed
  • 7. Sataloff RT, Baroody MM, Shaw A. Small vocal fold mass causing dysphonia in a professional soprano. Ear Nose Throat J 1999;78:744.ArticlePubMed
  • 8. Smith LJ, Sataloff RT. Vocal fold masses and a varicosity in a professional singer. Ear Nose Throat J 2006;85:15.ArticlePubMed
  • 9. Rubin AD, Sataloff RT. Hemorrhagic polyp with a contralateral contact lesion. Ear Nose Throat J 2004;83:219–220.ArticlePubMed
  • 10. Smith LJ, Sataloff RT. Bilateral vocal fold polyps. Ear Nose Throat J 2006;85:478.ArticlePubMed
  • 11. Altman KW. Vocal fold masses. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2007;40:1091–1108.viii. ArticlePubMed
  • 12. Wallis L, Jackson-Menaldi C, Holland W, Giraldo A. Vocal fold nodule vs. vocal fold polyp: answer from surgical pathologist and voice pathologist point of view. J Voice 2004;18:125–129.ArticlePubMed
  • 13. Vincent DA Jr. Botulinum toxin in the management of laryngeal tics. J Voice 2008;22:251–256.ArticlePubMed

Figure & Data

References

    Citations

    Citations to this article as recorded by  
    • DISTRIBUTION OF BENIGN LARYNGEAL TUMORS IN CORRELATION WITH DURATION OF CIGARETTE SMOKING
      Slaviša Radosavljević, Miško Živić, Marija Conić-Miletić, Biljana Kostić-Inić
      Acta Medica Medianae.2017; 56(2): 13.     CrossRef

    Comments on this article

    Add a comment
    / 1000 characters
    Figure

    JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders