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Brief communication Accessibility of device-aided therapies for persons with Parkinson’s disease in Poland
Katarzyna Smilowska1,2corresp_icon, Tomasz Pietrzykowski3, K Ray Chaudhuri4,5, Bastiaan R. Bloem2, Daniel J van Wamelen2,5,6

DOI: [Accepted]
Published online: November 20, 2023
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1Department of Neurology, 5th Regional Hospital in Sosnowiec, Poland
2Radboud University Medical Centre; Donders institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour; Department of Neurology; Centre of Expertise for Parkinson & Movement Disorders; Nijmegen; the Netherlands
3Research Centre for Public Policy and Regulatory Governance, Faculty of Law and Administration, University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
4King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, department of basic and clinical neuroscience, London, United Kingdom
5Parkinson’s Foundation Center of Excellence, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, United Kingdom
6King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, department of neuroimaging, London, United Kingdom
Corresponding author:  Katarzyna Smilowska,
Received: 4 September 2023   • Revised: 13 October 2023   • Accepted: 17 November 2023

Access to care for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), in particular to device-aided therapies (DAT), is not equally distributed.
To analyse accessibility to DAT (deep brain stimulation; intraduodenal levodopa pump therapy; or apomorphine pump therapy) in Poland.
We analysed the distribution of DAT use in Poland by determining the number of persons with PD receiving one of the three DATs during 2015-2021.
In 2021 the number of persons receiving DAT in Poland was 0.56% of the total PD population, having increased from 0.21% in 2015. Overall, deep brain stimulation was the preferred DAT in Poland, but strong regional differences in the use of the other DAT were present. Accessibility to DAT was negatively associated with average annual income (p<0.001).
Access to DAT for PD in Poland is still limited and accessibility showed strong regional differences, although its general increase over the last decade is encouraging.

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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders