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Letter to the editor
COVID-19 Associated Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy Presenting as Parkinsonism and Myorhythmia
Tien Lee Ong, Khariah Mat Nor, Yusniza Yusoff, Sapiah Sapuan
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(1):89-92.   Published online November 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21063
  • 2,122 View
  • 139 Download
  • 4 Citations
PDFSupplementary Material
Review Articles
Parkinson’s Disease and the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review Article on the Association between SARS-CoV-2 and α-Synucleinopathy
Smriti Sinha, Swati Mittal, Rupali Roy
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(3):184-192.   Published online July 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21046
  • 3,517 View
  • 189 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
There is an extensive debate on the neurological consequences of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its impact on Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, which seems to puzzle neurologists. Links between viral infections and PD have long been suspected and studied, but the exact relationship remains elusive. Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) enters the brain through multiple routes and has a direct impact on the brain, cumulative damage occurs due to the activation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. SARS-CoV-2 seems to aggravate PD due to its effects on α-synuclein, mitochondrial dysfunction, and dopamine depletion. A few studies have even highlighted the higher vulnerability of PD patients to COVID-19. The sudden dramatic change in lifestyle caused by the pandemic and the widespread lockdowns that were implemented have added to the hidden sorrows of PD patients, as they already have a compromised mechanism for coping with stress. This review summarizes insights from basic science and the clinical effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the human brain, with a specific focus on PD.
Management of Parkinson’s Disease in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Future Perspectives in the Era of Vaccination
Yue Hui Lau, Keng Ming Lau, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(3):177-183.   Published online July 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21034
  • 3,932 View
  • 131 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) has led to a serious global health crisis. Increasing evidence suggests that elderly individuals with underlying chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), are particularly vulnerable to this infection. Changes in the routine care of PD patients should be implemented carefully without affecting the quality provided. The utilization of telemedicine for clinical consultation, assessment and rehabilitation has also been widely recommended. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide recommendations in the management of PD during the pandemic as well as in the early phase of vaccination programs to highlight the potential sequelae and future perspectives of vaccination and further research in PD. Even though a year has passed since COVID- 19 emerged, most of us are still facing great challenges in providing a continuum of care to patients with chronic neurological disorders. However, we should regard this health crisis as an opportunity to change our routine approach in managing PD patients and learn more about the impact of SARS-CoV-2. Hopefully, PD patients can be vaccinated promptly, and more detailed research related to PD in COVID-19 can still be carried out.
Letter to the editor
Resilience and Trauma among Patients with Parkinson’s Disease during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Roberto Erro, Sofia Cuoco, Emanuele Nigro, Raffaele Ragone, Paolo Barone
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(1):77-79.   Published online April 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20126
  • 2,315 View
  • 133 Download
  • 1 Citations
PDFSupplementary Material
Case Report
Myoclonus-Ataxia Syndrome Associated with COVID-19
Kuldeep Shetty, Atul Manchakrao Jadhav, Ranjith Jayanthakumar, Seema Jamwal, Tejaswini Shanubhogue, Mallepalli Prabhakar Reddy, Gopal Krishna Dash, Radhika Manohar, Vivek Jacob Philip, Vikram Huded
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(2):153-156.   Published online April 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20106
  • 4,130 View
  • 149 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have increasingly been reported since the onset of the pandemic. Herein, we report a relatively new presentation. A patient in the convalescence period following a febrile illness with lower respiratory tract infection (fever, myalgia, nonproductive cough) presented with generalized disabling myoclonus, which is phenotypically suggestive of brainstem origin, along with additional truncal cerebellar ataxia. His neurology work-ups, such as brain MRI, electroencephalography, serum autoimmune and paraneoplastic antibody testing, were normal. His CT chest scan revealed right lower lung infiltrates, and serological and other laboratory testing did not show evidence of active infection. COVID-19 titers turned out to be strongly positive, suggestive of post-COVID-19 lung sequelae. He responded partially to antimyoclonic drugs and fully to a course of steroids, suggesting a para- or postinfectious immune-mediated pathophysiology. Myoclonusataxia syndrome appears to be a neurological manifestation of COVID-19 infection, and knowledge regarding this phenomenon should be increased among clinicians for better patient care in a pandemic situation.
Original Article
Telemedicine in an Academic Movement Disorders Center during COVID-19
Christine Doss Esper, Laura Scorr, Sosi Papazian, Daniel Bartholomew, Gregory Jacob Esper, Stewart Alan Factor
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(2):119-125.   Published online March 18, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20099
  • 3,301 View
  • 120 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Telemedicine has rapidly gained momentum in movement disorder neurology during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic to preserve clinical care while mitigating the risks of in-person visits. We present data from the rapid implementation of virtual visits in a large, academic, movement disorder practice during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods
We describe the strategic shift to virtual visits and retrospectively examine elements that impacted the ability to switch to telemedicine visits using historical prepandemic in-person data as a comparator, including demographics, distance driven, and diagnosis distribution, with an additional focus on patients with deep brain stimulators.
Results
A total of 686 telemedicine visits were performed over a five-week period (60% of those previously scheduled for in-office visits). The average age of participants was 65 years, 45% were female, and 73% were Caucasian. Men were more likely to make the transition (p = 0.02). Telemedicine patients lived farther from the clinic than those seen in person (66.47 km vs. 42.16 km, p < 0.001), age was not associated with making the switch, and patient satisfaction did not change. There was a significant shift in the distribution of movement disorder diagnoses seen by telemedicine compared to prepandemic in-person visits (p < 0.001). Patients with deep brain stimulators were more likely to use telemedicine (11.5% vs. 7%, p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Telemedicine is feasible, viable and relevant in the care of movement disorder patients, although health care disparities appear evident for women and minorities. Patients with deep brain stimulators preferred telemedicine in our study. Further study is warranted to explore these findings.
Viewpoint
Impact and Challenges of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Patients Requiring Botulinum Toxin A Treatment
Azalea Tenerife Pajo, Adrian Isidoro Espiritu, Roland Dominic Go Jamora
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(1):29-33.   Published online January 12, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20088
  • 5,786 View
  • 151 Download
  • 1 Citations
PDF
Letter to the editor
Encephalopathy and Complex Hyperkinesia in a Patient with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Infection
Wenyang Li, Elif Pinar Coskun, Rolando Berger, John Thomas Slevin, Luther Creed Pettigrew
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(2):173-175.   Published online January 12, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20084
  • 2,912 View
  • 52 Download
PDFSupplementary Material
Case Report
Involuntary Movements Following Administration of Hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 Pneumonia
Emmaline Zantua Fernando, Jeryl Ritzi Tan Yu, Salvador Miclat Abad Santos, Roland Dominic Go Jamora
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(1):75-77.   Published online December 7, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20091
  • 3,627 View
  • 101 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used as an investigational drug for patients with moderate to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There have been concerns of potential harms from side effects of the drug. We present a case of a 38-year-old male who was started on HCQ for COVID-19 pneumonia. He was referred for evaluation of myoclonus of all extremities, which resolved after discontinuation of HCQ. The involuntary movements were first reported after the initiation of HCQ, persisted despite improvement in inflammatory and radiologic parameters and eventually resolved after HCQ discontinuation. This supports a possible causality related to adverse drug reactions from HCQ that have not been commonly reported.
Brief communication
Deep Brain Stimulation Battery Exhaustion during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Crisis within a Crisis
Vikram Venkappayya Holla, Koti Neeraja, Bharath Kumar Surisetti, Shweta Prasad, Nitish Kamble, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(3):218-222.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20073
  • 6,170 View
  • 92 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and public health measures to control it have resulted in unique challenges in the management of patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS). We report our experience with the management of acute worsening of symptoms due to battery exhaustion in 3 patients with DBS.
Methods
Patients with DBS for movement disorders who visited the emergency room due to battery exhaustion during the nationwide lockdown from April to May 2020 were included.
Results
Two patients with subthalamic nucleus-DBS for Parkinson’s disease (PD) and one with globus pallidus interna-DBS for generalized dystonia presented with acute worsening of symptoms due to battery exhaustion. Urgent battery replacement was performed in both patients with PD. The patient with generalized dystonia was managed with medication adjustment as he chose to defer battery replacement.
Conclusion
DBS battery replacement can be an emergency. Decisions regarding DBS battery replacement should be individualized during this COVID-19 pandemic.
Letter to the editor
COVID-19: Implications for Sudden Death in Parkinson’s Disease
Ana Claudia Fiorini, Marcelo Cunio Machado Fonseca, Carla Alessandra Scorza, Josef Finsterer, Antônio Márcio Rodrigues, Antônio-Carlos Guimarães de Almeida, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(1):78-80.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20065
  • 3,636 View
  • 120 Download
PDF
Review Article
COVID-19: An Early Review of Its Global Impact and Considerations for Parkinson’s Disease Patient Care
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Sasivimol Virameteekul, Jong-Min Kim, Pramod Kr. Pal, Sun-Ju Chung
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(2):105-114.   Published online April 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20042
  • 11,858 View
  • 728 Download
  • 41 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
While many infectious disorders are unknown to most neurologists, COVID-19 is very different. It has impacted neurologists and other health care workers, not only in our professional lives but also through the fear and panic within our own families, colleagues, patients and their families, and even in the wider public. COVID-19 affects all sorts of individuals, but the elderly with underlying chronic conditions are particularly at risk of severe disease, or even death. Parkinson’s disease (PD) shares a common profile as an age-dependent degenerative disorder, frequently associated with comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular diseases, so PD patients will almost certainly fall into the high-risk group. Therefore, the aim of this review is to explore the risk of COVID-19 in PD based on the susceptibility to severe disease, its impact on PD disease severity, potential long-term sequelae, and difficulties of PD management during this outbreak, where neurologists face various challenges on how we can maintain effective care for PD patients without exposing them, or ourselves, to the risk of infection. It is less than six months since the identification of the original COVID-19 case on New Year’s Eve 2019, so it is still too early to fully understand the natural history of COVID-19 and the evidence on COVID-19-related PD is scant. Though the possibilities presented are speculative, they are theory-based, and supported by prior evidence from other neurotrophic viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2. Neurologists should be on high alert and vigilant for potential acute and chronic complications when encountering PD patients who are suspected of having COVID-19.

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders