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Original Article
Extraction of the pull force from inertial sensors during the pull test for Parkinson’s disease: A reliability study
Ryoma Taniuchi, Shusaku Kanai, Amane Hara, Kazuya Monden, Hiroaki Nagatani, Tsuyoshi Torii, Toshihide Harada
Received September 17, 2023  Accepted December 15, 2023  Published online December 15, 2023  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23185    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
To examine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the pull test in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) using the extracted pull force.
Methods
In this inter- and intra-rater reliability study, two raters performed a pull test on 30 patients with PD. The pull force was quantified using inertial sensors attached to the rater’s right hand and the patient’s lower trunk. This study calculated the pull force as an extracted three-dimensional vector quantity, the resultant acceleration, and was expressed in m/s2. Inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were analyzed using the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the pull force and Cohen’s weighted kappa (κw) for the pull test score. Furthermore, Bland–Altman analysis was used to investigate systematic errors.
Results
The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities of the pull force were very poor (ICC = 0.033–0.214). Bland–Altman analysis revealed no systematic errors between the pull forces at the two test points. Conversely, κw for the pull test scores were 0.763–0.920, indicating substantial to almost perfect agreement.
Conclusion
The pull test score was reliable despite variations in the quantified pull force for inter- and intra-rater reliabilities. Our findings suggest that the pull test is a robust tool for evaluating postural instability in patients with PD and that the pull force probably does not affect scoring performance.
Brief communication
Accessibility of device-aided therapies for persons with Parkinson’s disease in Poland
Katarzyna Smilowska, Tomasz Pietrzykowski, K Ray Chaudhuri, Bastiaan R. Bloem, Daniel J van Wamelen
Received September 4, 2023  Accepted November 17, 2023  Published online November 20, 2023  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23172    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Access to care for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), in particular to device-aided therapies (DAT), is not equally distributed.
Objectives
To analyse accessibility to DAT (deep brain stimulation; intraduodenal levodopa pump therapy; or apomorphine pump therapy) in Poland.
Methods
We analysed the distribution of DAT use in Poland by determining the number of persons with PD receiving one of the three DATs during 2015-2021.
Results
In 2021 the number of persons receiving DAT in Poland was 0.56% of the total PD population, having increased from 0.21% in 2015. Overall, deep brain stimulation was the preferred DAT in Poland, but strong regional differences in the use of the other DAT were present. Accessibility to DAT was negatively associated with average annual income (p<0.001).
Conclusions
Access to DAT for PD in Poland is still limited and accessibility showed strong regional differences, although its general increase over the last decade is encouraging.
Original Articles
Parkinson’s Disease, Impulsive-Compulsive Behaviors, and Health-Related Quality of Life
Marie Grall-Bronnec, Audrey Verholleman, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Juliette Leboucher, Elsa Thiabaud, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Benoit Schreck, Tiphaine Rouaud, Monica Roy, Pascal Derkinderen, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
J Mov Disord. 2024;17(1):82-88.   Published online November 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23042
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
A large body of literature has examined the links between the use of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the development of “impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICBs).” Little is known regarding the link between the development of ICBs and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We aimed to explore the factors that are associated with poorer HRQOL, especially in relation to DRT-induced ICBs, in a sample of PD patients.
Methods
This PARKADD (PARK: PARKinson’s disease; ADD: behavioral ADDictions) study was a prospective case‒control study initially designed to assess the factors associated with ICBs in PD patients. A prospective clinical follow-up was added, aiming to capture the long-term evolution of HRQOL in relation to ICBs occurring or worsening after the beginning of PD. We focused on sociodemographic and PD characteristics and the history or presence of ICBs. HRQOL was measured using the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-8. A multivariate linear regression was performed to identify factors related to poorer HRQOL.
Results
A total of 169 patients were eligible for the follow-up study. The presence of an ICB, a higher levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and a longer PD duration were significantly associated with poorer HRQOL, with an interaction between LEDD and PD duration.
Conclusion
The presence of an ICB was related to poorer HRQOL and should be considered a crucial factor for the management of PD patients. Several studies were recently published that provide guidelines for the management of these patients, with recommendations based on two key principles: prevention and specific treatment.
Comparative Olfactory Profiles in Parkinson’s Disease and Drug-Induced Parkinsonism
In Hee Kwak, Young Eun Kim, Suk Yun Kang, Joong Seob Lee, Jeongjae Lee, Min Seung Kim, Dong A Yea, Hyeo-il Ma
J Mov Disord. 2024;17(1):64-70.   Published online October 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23105
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is a frequently encountered diagnostic possibility when considering Parkinson’s disease (PD). While olfactory dysfunction is a common clinical feature in PD, the comparison of olfactory function between the two conditions remains insufficient. This study aimed to compare olfactory function, including threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) profiles, between PD and DIP.
Methods
Consecutive patients with drug-naïve PD (n = 78) or DIP (n = 31) confirmed through dopamine transporter imaging were enrolled in this study. The YSK olfactory function (YOF) test, composed of TDI domains culturally familiar odorants to Koreans, was administered to all patients.
Results
In the study population, patients with DIP were significantly older than patients with PD. Over 70% of patients in each group had hyposmia or anosmia, and there was no significant difference in the occurrence of olfactory dysfunction between the two groups. In addition, there were no differences in the total YOF score and threshold score between the two groups. Meanwhile, the PD group had a significantly lower discrimination and identification score than the DIP group after adjusting for age, sex, the existence of diabetes, disease duration, and cognitive function.
Conclusion
This study demonstrated that detailed olfactory profiles are different in PD and DIP, even though olfactory dysfunction can be observed in both conditions.
Hair Loss: A Well-Known Yet Understudied Symptom in Parkinson’s Disease Patients During Dopaminergic Therapy
Jungyeun Lee, Hwa Jung Ryu, Soon Young Hwang, Seong-Beom Koh
J Mov Disord. 2024;17(1):47-54.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23088
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Hair loss has been reported to occur during dopaminergic therapy in patients with Parkinson’s disease. The mechanism by which dopaminergic therapy induces hair loss is not well understood. Dopamine receptors are present in the hair follicle, where they regulate melanin production. However, the role of dopamine receptors in hair growth is still not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hair loss and identify factors associated with complaints of hair loss in patients with Parkinson’s disease.
Methods
A cross-sectional design involving 495 Parkinson’s disease patients was applied to evaluate hair loss status. Patients completed a questionnaire, and scalp/hair examinations were performed. Patients with underlying conditions that could affect hair loss and those prescribed medications known to increase the risk of hair loss were excluded. Finally, 291 patients (58.8%) were included for analysis.
Results
Among the 495 patients, 138 (27.9%) reported hair loss. Interestingly, more than half of the patients who complained of hair loss (79 out of 138) did not utilize treatments such as hair products, massage, dietary modifications, or alopecia medications. Hair inspection by a single investigator revealed objective hair loss in 263 patients (53.1%). An analysis of factors associated with hair loss complaints showed that the intake of dopaminergic medications with a levodopa-equivalent daily dose > 448 mg was associated with complaints of hair loss.
Conclusion
Dopaminergic medication is associated with hair loss complaints in Parkinson’s disease patients.
Brief communication
A Survey of Perspectives on Telemedicine for Patients With Parkinson’s Disease
Jae Young Joo, Ji Young Yun, Young Eun Kim, Yu Jin Jung, Ryul Kim, Hui-Jun Yang, Woong-Woo Lee, Aryun Kim, Han-Joon Kim
J Mov Disord. 2024;17(1):89-93.   Published online August 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23130
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients often find it difficult to visit hospitals because of motor symptoms, distance to the hospital, or the absence of caregivers. Telemedicine is one way to solve this problem.
Methods
We surveyed 554 PD patients from eight university hospitals in Korea. The questionnaire consisted of the clinical characteristics of the participants, possible teleconferencing methods, and preferences for telemedicine.
Results
A total of 385 patients (70%) expressed interest in receiving telemedicine. Among them, 174 preferred telemedicine whereas 211 preferred in-person visits. The longer the duration of disease, and the longer the time required to visit the hospital, the more patients were interested in receiving telemedicine.
Conclusion
This is the first study on PD patients’ preferences regarding telemedicine in Korea. Although the majority of patients with PD have a positive view of telemedicine, their interest in receiving telemedicine depends on their different circumstances.
Original Article
Cervical proprioception in Parkinson's disease and its correlation with manual dexterity function
Özlem Menevşe, Büşra Kepenek-Varol, Murat Gültekin, Sevil Bilgin
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):295-306.   Published online July 3, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23039
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Cervical proprioception plays a crucial role in posture and movement control. This study aimed to determine the relationships of cervical proprioception, cervical muscle strength and endurance with manual dexterity and hand strength in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Methods
Twenty individuals with PD (mean age: 63.9 years) and 20 healthy individuals as a control group (mean age: 61.9 years) were recruited. Cervical joint position error (JPE), static endurance of neck muscles, activation of deep cervical flexor muscles (Craniocervical Flexion Test, CCFT), manual dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test, PPT), cognitive and motor tasks of the PPT, finger tapping test (FTT), pinch strength, and grip strength were assessed.
Results
Cervical JPE was significantly higher in individuals with PD than in controls (p < 0.05). The strength and endurance of the cervical muscles were significantly decreased in individuals with PD (p < 0.05). Cervical JPE measurements were negatively correlated with PPT, cognitive and motor tasks of the PPT in individuals with PD (all p < 0.05). The endurance of cervical flexor muscles was negatively correlated with PPT and cognitive PPT scores in the PD group (p < 0.05). In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between cervical flexor endurance and hand strength in the PD group (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Cervical proprioception and the strength and endurance of cervical muscles decrease in individuals with PD compared to healthy individuals. Impairment of cervical proprioception appears to be associated with poorer upper extremity performance. Detailed evaluation of the cervical region in PD may help determine the factors affecting upper extremity function.
Review Article
GBA1 Variants and Parkinson’s Disease: Paving the Way for Targeted Therapy
Young Eun Huh, Tatiana Usnich, Clemens R. Scherzer, Christine Klein, Sun Ju Chung
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):261-278.   Published online June 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Glucosylceramidase beta 1 (GBA1) variants have attracted enormous attention as the most promising and important genetic candidates for precision medicine in Parkinson’s disease (PD). A substantial correlation between GBA1 genotypes and PD phenotypes could inform the prediction of disease progression and promote the development of a preventive intervention for individuals at a higher risk of a worse disease prognosis. Moreover, the GBA1-regulated pathway provides new perspectives on the pathogenesis of PD, such as dysregulated sphingolipid metabolism, impaired protein quality control, and disrupted endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi trafficking. These perspectives have led to the development of novel disease-modifying therapies for PD targeting the GBA1-regulated pathway by repositioning treatment strategies for Gaucher’s disease. This review summarizes the current hypotheses on a mechanistic link between GBA1 variants and PD and possible therapeutic options for modulating GBA1-regulated pathways in PD patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Comparative Biochemical and Pathological Evaluation of Brain Samples from Knock-In Murine Models of Gaucher Disease
    Makaila L. Furderer, Bahafta Berhe, Tiffany C. Chen, Stephen Wincovitch, Xuntian Jiang, Nahid Tayebi, Ellen Sidransky, Tae-Un Han
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(3): 1827.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Safinamide as an Adjunct to Levodopa in Asian and Caucasian Patients With Parkinson’s Disease and Motor Fluctuations: A Post Hoc Analysis of the SETTLE Study
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Takayuki Ishida, Takanori Kamei, Ryan Edbert Husni, Ippei Suzuki, Shey Lin Wu, Jin Whan Cho
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(2):180-190.   Published online April 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22196
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Safinamide is a selective, reversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitor with demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in placebo-controlled studies and is clinically useful for patients with motor fluctuations. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of safinamide as a levodopa adjunct therapy in Asian patients with Parkinson’s disease.
Methods
Data from 173 Asian and 371 Caucasian patients from the international Phase III SETTLE study were included in this post hoc analysis. The safinamide dose was increased from 50 mg/day to 100 mg/day if no tolerability issues occurred at week 2. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to week 24 in daily ON-time without troublesome dyskinesia (i.e., ON-time). Key secondary outcomes included changes in Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores.
Results
Safinamide significantly increased daily ON-time relative to placebo in both groups (least-squares mean: 0.83 hours, p = 0.011 [Asians]; 1.05 hours, p < 0.0001 [Caucasians]). Motor function relative to placebo (UPDRS Part III) improved significantly in Asians (-2.65 points, p = 0.012) but not Caucasians (-1.44 points, p = 0.0576). Safinamide did not worsen Dyskinesia Rating Scale scores in either subgroup, regardless of the presence or absence of dyskinesia at baseline. Dyskinesia was largely mild for Asians and moderate for Caucasians. None of the Asian patients experienced adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation.
Conclusion
Safinamide as a levodopa adjunct is well tolerated and effective in reducing motor fluctuations in both Asian and Caucasian patients. Further studies to investigate the real-world effectiveness and safety of safinamide in Asia are warranted.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Effects of Safinamide in Chinese and Non-Chinese Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
    Carlo Cattaneo, Jaime Kulisevsky
    Advances in Therapy.2024; 41(2): 638.     CrossRef
The Effect of Blood Lipids, Type 2 Diabetes, and Body Mass Index on Parkinson’s Disease: A Korean Mendelian Randomization Study
Kye Won Park, Yun Su Hwang, Seung Hyun Lee, Sungyang Jo, Sun Ju Chung
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(1):79-85.   Published online January 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22175
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Associations between various metabolic conditions and Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been previously identified in epidemiological studies. We aimed to investigate the causal effect of lipid levels, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and body mass index (BMI) on PD in a Korean population via Mendelian randomization (MR).
Methods
Two-sample MR analyses were performed with inverse-variance weighted (IVW), weighted median, and MR-Egger regression approaches. We identified genetic variants associated with lipid concentrations, T2DM, and BMI in publicly available summary statistics, which were either collected from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) or from meta-analyses of GWAS that targeted only Korean individuals or East Asian individuals, including Korean individuals. The outcome dataset was a GWAS on PD performed in a Korean population.
Results
From previous GWASs and meta-analyses, we selected single nucleotide polymorphisms as the instrumental variables. Variants associated with serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, as well as with T2DM and BMI, were selected (n = 11, 19, 17, 89, and 9, respectively). There were no statistically significant causal associations observed between the five exposures and PD using either the IVW, weighted median, or MR-Egger methods (p-values of the IVW method: 0.332, 0.610, 0.634, 0.275, and 0.860, respectively).
Conclusion
This study does not support a clinically relevant causal effect of lipid levels, T2DM, and BMI on PD risk in a Korean population.

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  • Causal effect of systemic lupus erythematosus on psychiatric disorders: A two-sample Mendelian randomization study
    Hua Xue, Shuangjuan Liu, Li Zeng, Wenhui Fan
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2024; 347: 422.     CrossRef
  • Unraveling the link: exploring the causal relationship between diabetes, multiple sclerosis, migraine, and Alzheimer’s disease through Mendelian randomization
    Hua Xue, Li Zeng, Shuangjuan Liu
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Glycated hemoglobin A1c, cerebral small vessel disease burden, and disease severity in Parkinson's disease
    Xinxin Ma, Shuhua Li, Fengzhi Liu, Yu Du, Haibo Chen, Wen Su
    Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology.2023; 10(12): 2276.     CrossRef
Review Article
Current Status and Future Perspectives on Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Parkinson’s Disease
Young Cha, Tae-Yoon Park, Pierre Leblanc, Kwang-Soo Kim
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(1):22-41.   Published online January 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22141
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  • 6 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease, affecting 1%–2% of the population over the age of 65. As the population ages, it is anticipated that the burden on society will significantly escalate. Although symptom reduction by currently available pharmacological and/or surgical treatments improves the quality of life of many PD patients, there are no treatments that can slow down, halt, or reverse disease progression. Because the loss of a specific cell type, midbrain dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, is the main cause of motor dysfunction in PD, it is considered a promising target for cell replacement therapy. Indeed, numerous preclinical and clinical studies using fetal cell transplantation have provided proof of concept that cell replacement therapy may be a viable therapeutic approach for PD. However, the use of human fetal cells remains fraught with controversy due to fundamental ethical, practical, and clinical limitations. Groundbreaking work on human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, coupled with extensive basic research in the stem cell field offers promising potential for hPSC-based cell replacement to become a realistic treatment regimen for PD once several major issues can be successfully addressed. In this review, we will discuss the prospects and challenges of hPSC-based cell therapy for PD.

Citations

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  • RNA-based controllers for engineering gene and cell therapies
    Kei Takahashi, Kate E Galloway
    Current Opinion in Biotechnology.2024; 85: 103026.     CrossRef
  • Precision Medicine in Parkinson's Disease Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
    Min Seong Kim, Hyesoo Kim, Gabsang Lee
    Advanced Healthcare Materials.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Potential for Therapeutic-Loaded Exosomes to Ameliorate the Pathogenic Effects of α-Synuclein in Parkinson’s Disease
    David J. Rademacher
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(4): 1187.     CrossRef
  • Neural Stem Cell Therapies: Promising Treatments for Neurodegenerative Diseases
    Amir Gholamzad, Hadis Sadeghi, Maryam Azizabadi Farahani, Ali Faraji, Mahya Rostami, Sajad Khonche, Shirin Kamrani, Mahsa Khatibi, Omid Moeini, Seyed Armit Hosseini, Mohammadmatin Nourikhani, Mehrdad Gholamzad
    Neurology Letters.2023; 2(2): 55.     CrossRef
  • Should continuous dopaminergic stimulation be a standard of care in advanced Parkinson’s disease?
    Z. Pirtošek, V. Leta, P. Jenner, M. Vérin
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2023; 130(11): 1395.     CrossRef
Original Article
Association of Depression With Early Occurrence of Postural Instability in Parkinson’s Disease
Yun Su Hwang, Sungyang Jo, Kye Won Park, Seung Hyun Lee, Sangjin Lee, Sun Ju Chung
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(1):68-78.   Published online December 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22091
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Depression in Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects the quality of life of patients. Postural instability and gait disturbance are associated with the severity and prognosis of PD. We investigated the association of depression with axial involvement in early-stage PD patients.
Methods
This study involved 95 PD patients unexposed to antiparkinsonian drugs. After a baseline assessment for depression, the subjects were divided into a depressed PD group and a nondepressed PD group. Analyses were conducted to identify an association of depression at baseline with the following outcome variables: the progression to Hoehn and Yahr scale (H-Y) stage 3, the occurrence of freezing of gait (FOG), levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and wearing-off. The follow-up period was 53.40 ± 16.79 months from baseline.
Results
Kaplan–Meier survival curves for H-Y stage 3 and FOG showed more prominent progression to H-Y stage 3 and occurrences of FOG in the depressed PD group than in the nondepressed PD group (log-rank p = 0.025 and 0.003, respectively). Depression in drug-naïve, early-stage PD patients showed a significant association with the progression to H-Y stage 3 (hazard ratio = 2.55; 95% confidence interval = 1.32–4.93; p = 0.005), as analyzed by Cox regression analyses. In contrast, the occurrence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia and wearing-off did not differ between the two groups (log-rank p = 0.903 and 0.351, respectively).
Conclusion
Depression in drug-naïve, early-stage PD patients is associated with an earlier occurrence of postural instability. This suggests shared nondopaminergic pathogenic mechanisms and potentially enables the prediction of early development of postural instability.
Review Article
Subjective Cognitive Complaints in Cognitively Normal Patients With Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review
Jin Yong Hong, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(1):1-12.   Published online November 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22059
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) refer to self-perceived cognitive decline and are related to objective cognitive decline. SCCs in cognitively normal individuals are considered a preclinical sign of subsequent cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease, and SCCs in cognitively normal patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are also gaining attention. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current research on SCCs in cognitively normal patients with PD. A systematic search found a lack of consistency in the methodologies used to define and measure SCCs. Although the association between SCCs and objective cognitive performance in cognitively normal patients with PD is controversial, SCCs appear to be predictive of subsequent cognitive decline. These findings support the clinical value of SCCs in cognitively normal status in PD; however, further convincing evidence from biomarker studies is needed to provide a pathophysiological basis for these findings. Additionally, a consensus on the definition and assessment of SCCs is needed for further investigations.

Citations

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  • Subjective Cognitive Complaints in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis
    Mattia Siciliano, Alessandro Tessitore, Francesca Morgante, Jennifer G. Goldman, Lucia Ricciardi
    Movement Disorders.2024; 39(1): 17.     CrossRef
  • Association of Neuropsychiatric Symptom Profiles With Cognitive Decline in Patients With Parkinson Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment
    Young-gun Lee, Mincheol Park, Seong Ho Jeong, Kyoungwon Baik, Sungwoo Kang, So Hoon Yoon, Han Kyu Na, Young H. Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
    Neurology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Subjective cognitive complaints in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy
    Jun Seok Lee, Jong Hyeon Ahn, Jong Mok Ha, Jinyoung Youn, Jin Whan Cho
    Frontiers in Neurology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Daily Emotional Experiences in Persons with Parkinson Disease: Relations to Subjective Cognitive Complaints and Quality of Life
    Karen R. Hebert, Mackenzie Feldhacker
    Physical & Occupational Therapy In Geriatrics.2023; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Pathobiology of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson Disease: Challenges and Outlooks
    Kurt A. Jellinger
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 25(1): 498.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Potential Link Between Cognition and Motor Reserve in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease
Seok Jong Chung, Yae Ji Kim, Yun Joong Kim, Hye Sun Lee, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Yong Jeong, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(3):249-257.   Published online September 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22063
  • 2,453 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
To investigate whether there is a link between cognitive function and motor reserve (i.e., individual capacity to cope with nigrostriatal dopamine depletion) in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Methods
A total of 163 patients with drug-naïve PD who underwent 18F-FP-CIT PET, brain MRI, and a detailed neuropsychological test were enrolled. We estimated individual motor reserve based on initial motor deficits and striatal dopamine depletion using a residual model. We performed correlation analyses between motor reserve estimates and cognitive composite scores. Diffusion connectometry analysis was performed to map the white matter fiber tracts, of which fractional anisotropy (FA) values were well correlated with motor reserve estimates. Additionally, Cox regression analysis was used to assess the effect of initial motor reserve on the risk of dementia conversion.
Results
The motor reserve estimate was positively correlated with the composite score of the verbal memory function domain (γ = 0.246) and with the years of education (γ = 0.251). Connectometry analysis showed that FA values in the left fornix were positively correlated with the motor reserve estimate, while no fiber tracts were negatively correlated with the motor reserve estimate. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that higher motor reserve estimates tended to be associated with a lower risk of dementia conversion (hazard ratio, 0.781; 95% confidence interval, 0.576–1.058).
Conclusion
The present study demonstrated that the motor reserve estimate was well correlated with verbal memory function and with white matter integrity in the left fornix, suggesting a possible link between cognition and motor reserve in patients with PD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Hippocampal Perfusion Affects Motor and Cognitive Functions in Parkinson Disease: An Early Phase 18F‐FP‐CIT Positron Emission Tomography Study
    Min Young Chun, Seok Jong Chung, Su Hong Kim, Chan Wook Park, Seong Ho Jeong, Hye Sun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Yong Jeong, Yun Joong Kim
    Annals of Neurology.2024; 95(2): 388.     CrossRef
  • Imaging Procedure and Clinical Studies of [18F]FP-CIT PET
    Changhwan Sung, Seung Jun Oh, Jae Seung Kim
    Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Extra-Basal Ganglia Brain Structures Are Related to Motor Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease
    Jinyoung Youn, Ji Hye Won, Mansu Kim, Junmo Kwon, Seung Hwan Moon, Minkyeong Kim, Jong Hyun Ahn, Jun Kyu Mun, Hyunjin Park, Jin Whan Cho
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2023; 13(1): 39.     CrossRef
Association Between Gait and Dysautonomia in Patients With De Novo Parkinson’s Disease: Forward Gait Versus Backward Gait
Seon-Min Lee, Mina Lee, Eun Ji Lee, Rae On Kim, Yongduk Kim, Kyum-Yil Kwon
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(1):59-67.   Published online September 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22045
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Studies on gait and autonomic dysfunction have been insufficient so far, particularly de novo Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of this study was to identify the association between gait dynamics and autonomic dysfunction in patients with de novo PD.
Methods
A total 38 patients with de novo PD were retrospectively included in this study. Details of patients’ dysautonomia were assessed using the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease-Autonomic Dysfunction (SCOPA-AUT). For assessment of gait, a computerized gait analysis was performed using the GAITRite system for forward gait and backward gait. High SCOPA-AUT score (PD-HSAS) group and low SCOPA-AUT score (PD-LSAS) group were identified according to their SCOPA-AUT scores.
Results
Nineteen (50%) patients with high SCOPA-AUT scores above median value (12.5) were assigned into the PD-HSAS group and others were assigned to the PD-LSAS group. Compared with the PD-LSAS group, the PD-HSAS group exhibited slower gait, shorter stride, decreased cadence, increased double support phase, decreased swing phase, and increased variability in swing time. Total SCOPA-AUT score showed significantly positive correlations with gait variability and instability but a negative correlation with gait hypokinesia. In subdomain analysis, urinary dysautonomia was highly associated with impairment of gait dynamics. All significant results were found to be more remarkable in backward gait than in forward gait.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that alteration in gait dynamics, especially backward gait, is highly associated with autonomic dysfunction in patients with de novo PD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Journal of Neural Transmission.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Determinants of Dual-task Gait Speed in Older Adults with and without Parkinson’s Disease
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    International Journal of Sports Medicine.2023; 44(10): 744.     CrossRef

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders